Abstract View

Short-term culture of ovarian cortex pieces to assess the cryopreservation outcome in wild felids for genome conservation
Wiedemann C, Zahmel J, Jewgenow K
BMC Veterinary Research 2013, 9:37 (22 February 2013)
Background
Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has the potential to preserve female germ cells of endangered mammals. In the present study, a freezing protocol successfully used for human tissue, was adapted for preserving ovarian tissue of domestic and nondomestic felids. Ovaries from non-domestic felid species were obtained from seven freshly euthanized and two recently deceased wild felids kept in different European Zoos. In addition, ovaries from domestic cats were obtained after ovariectomy from local veterinary clinics for methodology adaptations.
Ovarian cortex was dissected and uniform sized pieces of 2 mm diameter were obtained. Using a slow freezing protocol (-0.3[degree sign]C per min) in 1.5 mol/L ethylene glycol, 0.1 mol/L sucrose, the pieces were cultured for up to 14 days both before and after cryopreservation. The integrity of primordial follicles was assessed by histology, and the impact of different protein sources (FCS or BSA) and Vitamin C was determined during two weeks of culture.
Results and conclusion
During culture the number of primordial follicles decreased within the ovarian pieces (p < 0.05). This effect was less pronounced when FCS was used as the protein source instead of BSA. Supplementation with Vitamin C had a detrimental effect on follicle survival. Since the procedure of cryopreservation had no effect on the follicle survival after one week of culture we conclude that the freezing protocol was suitable for felids. This is the first report of preserving a hugh amount of follicles within ovarian tissue by slow freezing performed in several wild feline species.

Eric M. Stroud, Craig P. O’Connell, Patrick H. Rice, Nicholas H. Snow, Brian B. Barnes, Mohammed R. Elshaer, James E. Hanson, Chemical shark repellent: Myth or fact? The effect of a shark necromone on shark feeding behavior, Ocean & Coastal Management, Available online 5 February 2013
Since 1942, the search for an effective chemical shark repellent has been ongoing research concern in the United States. A long-standing anecdote that sharks avoid areas containing decomposing shark tissue has initiated new interest in identifying trace chemical alarm signals produced during decomposition (necromones). A commercially-sourced shark necromone produced from putrefied shark tissue was evaluated over a five-year period in South Bimini, Bahamas. Competitively-feeding populations of Caribbean reef sharks (Carcharhinus perezi) and blacknose sharks (Carcharhinus acronotus) were exposed to necromones using pressurized aerosol canisters at the surface. Shark density estimations were made at the initial, 1 min and 5 min intervals after preliminary exposure along with continuous exposure of feeding stimulus. In both species, an unambiguous halt in feeding behavior was observed within 1 min after exposure of the necromone. For aerosol delivery, a 150 mL dose of the necromone from a single aerosol canister is able to halt all feeding activity in a combined population of C. perezi and C. acronotus. Shark necromones induced a spectacular alarm response in interacting sharks resulting in a temporary evacuation of an area containing feeding stimuli. Additionally, sharks were not deterred by alternative treatment presentations of 10% weight percent (w/w) aqueous urea, 10% w/w oleic acid in ethanol, or water buffered to pH 8.5. Habituation to the necromone was not observed for repeated tests at the same location. In all experiments, the presence of a shark necromone did not produce a similar aversion response for teleosts as observed in C. perezi or C. acronotus; however, anecdotal observations demonstrate that teleosts increased their feeding rate in the presence of the necromone. Experimental controls using denatured ethanol or water confirmed that feeding sharks were not deterred by bubbles, sound, or the solvents used to extract the necromones. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicates that the necromone is a complex solution rich in amino acids and putrefaction products. Experiments demonstrate that the key chemical component responsible for the alarm response is within these amino acids and/or putrefaction products, but further experimentation is needed to more accurately identify the active ingredient. Shark necromones hold particular promise for use in shark bycatch reduction and conservation. The existence of a putative chemical shark repellent has been confirmed.

Zootaxa 3619 (1): 46–58 (26 Feb. 2013)
The reptile type specimens preserved in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC) of Madrid, Spain
TERESA GARCÍA-DÍEZ & JOSÉ E. GONZÁLEZ-FERNÁNDEZ
Evolution of montane species may be strongly influenced by climate oscillations, particularly species distributed in isolated high-elevation areas (sky islands). Chilean topography is exemplified by montane environments including the Andes and Coastal Mountains. To test hypotheses related to genetic divergence associated with sky islands, we explored population genetics and phylogenetic signatures in the montane lizard Liolaemus nigroviridis Müller and Hellmich 1932. We sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome b for samples collected from six montane areas in central Chile. We found high genetic divergence among populations, congruent with well-supported clades from phylogeny reconstructions. The most recent common ancestor of all samples of L. nigroviridis was dated around the limit of Pliocene-Pleistocene (2.7 Mya), congruent with early vicariance of Andean and coastal populations. Deep lineage divergences suggest that allopatric populations accumulated high nucleotide differences and maintained long periods without gene exchange. We discuss potential taxonomic revisions considering relative genetic divergence.

Ontogenetic development of intestinal length and relationships to diet in an Australasian fish family (Terapontidae)
Davis AM, Unmack PJ, Pusey BJ, Pearson RG, Morgan DL
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013, 13:53 (25 February 2013)
Background
One of the most widely accepted ecomorphological relationships in vertebrates is the negative correlation between intestinal length and proportion of animal prey in diet. While many fish groups exhibit this general pattern, other clades demonstrate minimal, and in some cases contrasting, associations between diet and intestinal length. Moreover, this relationship and its evolutionary derivation have received little attention from a phylogenetic perspective. This study documents the phylogenetic development of intestinal length variability, and resultant correlation with dietary habits, within a molecular phylogeny of 28 species of terapontid fishes. The Terapontidae (grunters), an ancestrally euryhaline-marine group, is the most trophically diverse of Australia’s freshwater fish families, with widespread shifts away from animal-prey-dominated diets occurring since their invasion of fresh waters.
Results
Description of ontogenetic development of intestinal complexity of terapontid fishes, in combination with ancestral character state reconstruction, demonstrated that complex intestinal looping (convolution) has evolved independently on multiple occasions within the family. This modification of ontogenetic development drives much of the associated interspecific variability in intestinal length evident in terapontids. Phylogenetically informed comparative analyses (phylogenetic independent contrasts) showed that the interspecific differences in intestinal length resulting from these ontogenetic developmental mechanisms explained ~65% of the variability in the proportion of animal material in terapontid diets.
Conclusions
The ontogenetic development of intestinal complexity appears to represent an important functional innovation underlying the extensive trophic differentiation seen in Australia’s freshwater terapontids, specifically facilitating the pronounced shifts away from carnivorous (including invertebrates and vertebrates) diets evident across the family. The capacity to modify intestinal morphology and physiology may also be an important facilitator of trophic diversification during other phyletic radiations.

MAYOR, P., BOWLER, M. and LÓPEZ-PLANA, C. (2013), Functional Morphology of the Female Genital Organs in the Peruvian Red Uakari Monkey (Cacajao Calvus Ucayalii). Am. J. Primatol.. doi: 10.1002/ajp.22132
Functional morphology may provide important information that could improve methodologies for the diagnosis of the reproductive phase of females, and develop assisted breeding techniques for wildlife. This study examined features of genital organs in 19 Peruvian red uakari monkey (Cacajao calvus ucayalii) females in different reproductive stages, collected from wild animals hunted for food by rural communities in the North-eastern Peruvian Amazon, in order to provide knowledge on the reproductive physiology of this species. The observed mean ovulation rate was 1.4 follicles, and the observed maximal follicle diameter was 0.8 cm. After ovulation, the matured follicle luteinizes resulting in functional CL. In case of oocyte fertilization, the pregnancy CL grows to a maximum of 1.2 cm in diameter, and luteal volume per female decreases related to the advance of pregnancy. Pregnant females also present follicular activity until late pregnancy, but non-ovulated follicles do not undergo atretic processes and apparently transform to accessory CL, resulting in a contribution of 30% of the total luteal volume. All pregnant females delivered a single fetus at term, resulting in a rate of reproductive wastage of 20% of oocytes or embryos. The endometrium and the endometrial glands in non-pregnant females in the follicular phase show a significant increase related to the follicular growth, reaching a high proliferation in non-pregnant females in the luteal phase. The red uakari monkey showed different vaginal epithelium features in accordance with the reproductive state of the female, suggesting that vaginal cytology could be a successful methodology with which to characterize the estrous cycle of this species. The present reproductive evaluation of the Peruvian red uakari monkey provides important information that could improve the development of assisted reproductive techniques in non-human primates.

BUDDA, M. L., ELY, J. J., DOAN, S., CHAVEZ-SUAREZ, M., WHITE, G. L. and WOLF, R. F. (2013), Evaluation of Reproduction and Raising Offspring in a Nursery-Reared SPF Baboon (Papio hamadryas anubis) Colony. Am. J. Primatol.. doi: 10.1002/ajp.22136
Baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) of a conventional breeding colony were nursery-reared to create a specific pathogen-free (SPF) baboon-breeding program. Because the founding generations were nursery-reared until 2 years of age, it was suspected that the SPF baboons would exhibit increased reproductive challenges as adults. Mothering behavior was of interest, because SPF females were not exposed to parental role models during the nursery-rearing process. We compared reproductive data from the SPF baboon breeding program during its first 10 years with data from age-matched baboons during the same period from an established, genetically-similar conventional breeding colony. We also evaluated records documenting mother–infant behaviors within the SPF colony. The average age of menarche in SPF females was 3.3 years. The overall live birth rate of both SPF and conventional females was approximately 90%, with no difference in pregnancy outcome between the two colonies. The average age at first conception for SPF females was earlier (4.2 years) than that of the conventional females (4.7 years). In both colonies, primiparous females were more likely to abort than multiparous females. Similarly, primiparous females were more likely to lose their infants to death or human intervention. A mothering score system was developed in the SPF colony to facilitate intervention of poor mother–infant relationships. Records revealed 70% of SPF mothers were able to raise one or more of their infants successfully to at least 180 days of age, which did not differ from conventional mothers. SPF females returned to post-partum amenorrhea 27 days sooner on average than the conventional females, independent of dam age. The nursery-rearing process used for recruitment into the SPF colony therefore did not have an adverse effect on reproduction or rearing offspring.

JIN, J., SU, Y., TAO, Y., GUO, S. and YU, Z. (2013), Personality as a Predictor of General Health in Captive Golden Snub-Nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Am. J. Primatol.. doi: 10.1002/ajp.22127
Increasing studies in human and animals have shown that personality is related to biological profile and affects health outcomes. Understanding the link between personality and health will contribute to preventing illness and promoting well-being in non-human primates. The present study examined whether personality predicted health outcomes in captive golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Personality was measured by rating on a list of traits and four factors (Aggressiveness, Sociability, Mellowness, and Excitability) were extracted. Morbidity was measured by occurrence, duration, and number of illnesses, as well as (mean and maximum) digestive dysfunction symptoms scores. Morbidity measurements were coded from illness history which was recorded during the 27 months since the personality assessment. The results showed that lower Aggressiveness predicted greater number of illness, longer illness duration, and more serious digestive dysfunction. In addition, Mellowness, Excitability, and age by Sociability interaction influenced digestive function significantly. Low mellow individuals, high excitable individuals, high sociable younger individuals and low sociable older individuals had poorer digestive function. The present study demonstrated that personality was associated with morbidity in captive R. roxellanae and stress might contribute to this association. Personality assessment provided useful information on individual vulnerability. Carefully looking for early signs of illness among vulnerable individuals is expected to reduce health risks, which would promote welfare in captive non-human primates.

Bulletin of Pure & Applied Sciences- Zoology
Year : 2012, Volume : 31a, Issue : 2, 8799
Distribution of fisheries products in Japan – A prospective model for improvement of domestic fish marketing in India
Krishna Savalla Murali
In Japan, the central wholesale markets are playing a key role in the distribution of fish and fisheries products. The local governments under the approval of Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and in accordance with the wholesale market law have established the central wholesale markets. The central wholesale markets distribute about 60–70% of the fisheries products in the country. These facilities are established for bringing the products from various producers, setting the fair price and providing the stable distribution of perishables such as Marine products, Meat, Vegetables and Fruits. Collection, Fair pricing, Commodity distribution, Sound settlement of accounts and providing information are the major functions of the wholesale markets. The people who work at central wholesale markets are the Primary wholesalers, Intermediate wholesalers, Participants in transactions and affiliated businessmen. Wholesaling is carried out by means of Auction, Bidding, Individual transaction and Fixed price transactions. Well organized central wholesale markets, good post harvest facilities, usage of information technology, quick waste disposal and food sanitation law are the unique features of distribution system in Japan. Super markets, convenience stores, departmental stores and cooperatives are playing a vital role in distribution of fisheries products. Efforts are being made to introduce the Japanese distribution strategies of fisheries products in India with few modifications according to the local conditions to secure the stable supply of fish and fisheries products to Indian citizen, because it will be a driving force for socioeconomic development.

Zootaxa 3619 (2): 130–144 (27 Feb. 2013)
Two new species of cascudinhos of the genus Otothyropsis (Siluriformes: Hypoptopomatinae) from the rio Paraná basin, Brazil
BÁRBARA B. CALEGARI, PABLO LEHMANN A. & ROBERTO E. REIS
Otothyropsis polyodon, sp. n., and O. biamnicus, sp. n., two new species of loricariid catfishes are described from the rio Paraná basin. Otothyropsis biamnicus and O. polyodon differ from two other Otothyropsis by having a longer caudal peduncle, middle series of lateral plates complete and with higher number of plates, and the anterior margin of the mesethmoid not covered by median rostral plate ventrally. The new species differ from each other in that O. polyodon have a longer pectoral-fin spine and a greater number of premaxillary and dentary teeth. Otothyropsis polyodon was collected in the rio Verde, tributary to the upper rio Paraná basin, and O. biamnicus is found in both the rio Iguaçu and rio Tibagi basins. A key for the species of Otothyropsis is presented and their relationships and geographical distributions are discussed.

Gillespie, T. R., Barelli, C. and Heistermann, M. (2013), Effects of Social Status and Stress on Patterns of Gastrointestinal Parasitism in Wild White-Handed Gibbons (Hylobates lar). Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.. doi: 10.1002/ajpa.22232
Although gibbons (family Hylobatidae) are typically monogamous, polyandrous groups occur regularly. Stress associated with elevated intragroup competition among males in polyandrous groups may increase susceptibility to infectious disease. To better understand this interplay, as well as to provide the first comprehensive assessment of parasitism in free-ranging gibbons, we characterized the richness of gastrointestinal parasites and examined their prevalence in males from 14 groups (10 pair-living, 4 multi-male) of white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) at Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. From September 2008 to May 2009, 324 fecal samples were collected from 23 individually recognizable male gibbons and screened for gastrointestinal helminths and protozoa after isolation via fecal floatation, sedimentation, and immunofluorescent antibody detection. A total of 10 parasite species recovered, including seven nematodes, two protozoans, and one trematode. Parasite richness and species-specific prevalence were examined relative to social organization (pair-living vs. multi-male), male status (primary vs. secondary), age (subadult, adult, senior), fecal glucocorticoid levels, and time of the year. No relationship was found between parasite richness and sociodemographic or physiological factors. Similarly, prevalence of infection with parasite species was not associated with the majority of sociodemographic factors; however, Ternidens sp. and Balantidium coli varied seasonally and Trichuris sp. decreased with increasing age. Moreover, observational data suggest that competition is low in this gibbon population, and our findings are consistent with those observations in that cooperative defense may offset stress and reduce susceptibility to infection

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