Abstract View

Zootaxa 3619 (4): 428–452 (1 Mar. 2013)
Liolaemus carlosgarini and Liolaemus riodamas (Squamata: Liolaemidae), two new species of lizards lacking precloacal pores, from Andean areas of central Chile
Most of the lizards of the Liolaemus genus present precloacal pores in males, with few exceptions in species of the lineomaculatus and neuquensis groups, and in the elongatus-kriegi complex. The elongatus-kriegi complex, belonging to the Liolaemus (sensu stricto) subgenus, is composed of medium sized, saxicolous, viviparous and insectivorous or omnivorous lizards, distributed between the Andean and Patagonian zones of Chile and Argentina. We reviewed the taxonomic history of this group, and we describe two new species, Liolaemus carlosgarini, found in the vicinity of the Maule Lagoon, in the Maule Region, Chile, and Liolaemus riodamas, described from the population that was originally designated as Liolaemus cf. ceii, from Las Damas River, near the Termas del Flaco locality, in the Libertador Bernardo O’Higgins Region, thereby based on this research L. ceii is eliminated from the species belonging to Chile.
Both species have as a diagnostic character the absence of precloacal pores, and we suggest here their presumptive systematic relationships in Liolaemus. We analyzed ten species of Liolaemus, in order to perform a phylogenetic analysis based on external morphology, using mostly squamation and morphometric characters. The analysis was performed using PAUP, with the Maximum Parsimony criterion. In addition, through diaphanisation, we studied and described the osteology of the new species. We conclude that species lacking precloacal pores do not form a monophyletic group, and that constructing a phylogeny using only external morphology, at least for this group of reptiles, is insufficient to establish solid phyletic relationships. Other sort of characters should complement the morphological ones.

Zootaxa 3619 (4): 467–490 (1 Mar. 2013)
Scale surface microstructure and scale size in the tooth-carp genus Aphanius (Teleostei, Cyprinodontidae) from endorheic basins in Southwest Iran
A substantial number of species within the tooth-carp Aphanius Nardo, 1827 (Cyprinodontidae, Teleostei) has been recorded from the endorheic drainage systems of Iran, and several isolated populations in these systems may deserve species status. Descriptions of these species and populations have been based mainly on morphological and molecular data; however, the characters related to the fish scales have not up to now been intensively studied and employed for the identification of the species belonging to this genus. The objective of this study is to test as to whether (i) scale surface morphology, (ii) scale surface microstructure, and (iii) scale size can be used to discriminate species and/or populations and, (iv) to discuss the possible causes of the observed differences. To achieve these objectives, scales of three species of the genus Aphanius from endorheic basins in SW Iran, viz. A. sophiae (nine populations from the Kor River Basin), A. farsicus (four populations from the Maharlu Lake Basin) and A. pluristriatus (a single population from the Mond River Basin) have been studied using SEM images, scale measurements, and uni- and multivariate statistics. It is opined that scale surface morphology and microstructure cannot help in distinguishing the species, but can be employed to discriminate certain populations of A. sophiae (those from Safashahr, Kharameh, Tashk, Gol). In addition, scale size and J-indices, respectively, represent a valuable tool for species separation, which corroborates earlier studies for the use of these indices in taxonomy.
Major driving forces of the differentiation within A. sophiae probably include habitat fragmentation resulting from the geological history and local adaptations. Thus the differentiation results from a balance between both genetic and environmental effects.

Chuang, L.-T., Pinfold, T. L., Hu, H.-Y., Chen, Y.-S., Schulze, J., Presley, J. M., Irons, G. and Glew, R. H. (2013), Fatty-acid, amino-acid and mineral composition of two milk replacers for marsupials. International Zoo Yearbook. doi: 10.1111/izy.12014
Although milk replacers are widely used to feed orphaned and injured marsupial joeys in Australia, little is known about the nutrient composition of these foods. We analysed two milk substitutes, Di-Vetelact (DiV) and Wombaroo Kangaroo (Wom) [milk stage >0·7 (joeys having completed 70% of their pouch life)], for their content of fatty acids, amino acids, and minerals and trace elements. The protein contents of DiV and Wom were 25·0% and 17·3% of fresh weight, respectively, and, except for tryptophan, the amino-acid profile compared favourably with three high-quality proteins. The fatty-acid content of DiV and Wom was 9·65% and 17·6%, respectively. Relative to marsupial milk, linoleic acid (DiV, 18·3%; Wom, 9·32%) and α-linolenic acid (DiV, 2·97%; Wom, 3·94%) were well represented in both milk replacers, but docosahexaenoic acid was not detected. Comparable amounts of zinc, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus were present in DiV and Wom, but the copper content of DiV was only 5% that of Wom and manganese was not detected in DiV. These data indicate that two popular marsupial milk replacers contain healthful amounts of many essential nutrients relative to marsupial milk but lack the docosahexaenoic acid that is critical for brain growth and development in mammals.

O’Brien, Q. and Cooper, D. (2013), Conservation breeding of Shortfin eels Anguilla australis and Giant kokopu Galaxias argenteus at Mahurangi Technical Institute using aquarium and aquaculture techniques. International Zoo Yearbook. doi: 10.1111/izy.12007
Mahurangi Technical Institute (MTI) operates a commercial fish hatchery that conducts aquaculture research, acts as a teaching tool for aquaculture students, breeds native fish for reintroduction projects, and for supply to zoos and public aquariums for display, as well as breeding selected introduced species for biological control of aquatic weeds throughout New Zealand. This research arm has a long and successful history in the breeding and rearing of a number of fish species, including New Zealand native threatened freshwater-fish species. The Shortfin eel Anguilla australis, Giant kokopu Galaxias argenteus, Banded kokopu Galaxias fasciatus, Shortjaw kokopu Galaxias postvectis, Koaro Galaxias brevipinnis, Redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni, Common bully Gobiomorphus cotidianus, Giant bully Gobiomorphus gobioides, Cran’s bully Gobiomorphus basalis, Freshwater shrimp Paratya curvirostris and Freshwater crab Amarinus lacustris have all been bred successfully at MTI. Of these native species, MTI has successfully closed the lifecycle of Giant kokopu, Banded kokopu, Cran’s bully, Common bully, Freshwater shrimp and Freshwater crab. This paper focuses on work so far conducted to close the lifecycle of the Shortfin eel and the Giant kokopu.

Christina R. Stanley, R.I.M. Dunbar, Consistent social structure and optimal clique size revealed by social network analysis of feral goats, Capra hircus, Animal Behaviour, Available online 1 March 2013, ISSN 0003-3472, 10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.01.020.
Social network analysis has become a valuable tool for the measurement of social bonds and can give insight into the level of social complexity in a species. However, most studies have focused on a single social group or community, and we have a rather limited understanding of the extent to which a species‘ network structure varies across groups and across habitats. We investigated the strength and structure of social bonds in feral goat groups in two geographical locations that differ in ecological and climatic conditions. We found that a range of strengths of social bonds existed between female goats, with behavioural and spatial measures being highly correlated. Levels of aggression between spatially proximate individuals reflected the intrinsic costs of social living, but lower rates between more strongly bonded individuals indicated a degree of social tolerance. We found a consistent social structure despite differences in demography and ecology and we propose that associations are driven by social benefits as well as by ecological requirements. We suggest that a clique size of 12–13 individuals may be optimal for goats; beyond this threshold, the system may be less stable and susceptible to fission.

Jolle W. Jolles, Andrew J. King, Andrea Manica, Alex Thornton, Heterogeneous structure in mixed-species corvid flocks in flight, Animal Behaviour, Available online 1 March 2013, ISSN 0003-3472, 10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.01.015.
Flocks of birds in flight represent a striking example of collective behaviour. Models of self-organization suggest that repeated interactions among individuals following simple rules can generate the complex patterns and coordinated movements exhibited by flocks. However, such models often assume that individuals are identical and interchangeable, and fail to account for individual differences and social relationships among group members. Here, we show that heterogeneity resulting from species differences and social structure can affect flock spatial dynamics. Using high-resolution photographs of mixed flocks of jackdaws, Corvus monedula, and rooks, Corvus frugilegus, we show that birds preferentially associated with conspecifics and that, like high-ranking members of single-species groups, the larger and more socially dominant rooks positioned themselves near the leading edge of flocks. Neighbouring birds showed closer directional alignment if they were of the same species, and neighbouring jackdaws in particular flew very close to one another. Moreover, birds of both species often flew especially close to a single same-species neighbour, probably reflecting the monogamous pair bonds that characterize these corvid social systems. Together, our findings demonstrate that the characteristics of individuals and their social systems are likely to result in preferential associations that critically influence flock structure.

Body size and growth patterns in the therocephalian Moschorhinus kitchingi (Therapsida: Eutheriodontia) before and after the end-Permian extinction in South Africa
Adam K. Huttenlocker and Jennifer Botha-Brink
Paleobiology 2013 39 (2), 253-277
The continuous fossil record of therocephalian therapsids (Eutheriodontia) across the Permo-Triassic boundary and their differential survivorship of the end-Permian extinction offer an exceptional deep-time perspective on vertebrate life-history evolution during episodes of large-scale ecological perturbation. To examine potential impacts of the extinction on body size evolution (e.g., “Lilliput” effects) and growth patterns, we investigated cranial sizes and limb bone histology in the therocephalian Moschorhinus kitchingi both before and after the end-Permian extinction, facilitated by analysis of thin-sections of 23 limb bones from an ontogenetic sample of ten individuals across the Permo-Triassic boundary. In general, early subadult Moschorhinus displayed propodial cortices with extensive woven- and parallel-fibered bone (PFB) with dense radial and reticular vascularization and a moderately thickened bone wall with few growth marks. The outer cortex of propodials and epipodials showed a transition to PFB and lamellar bone with longitudinally oriented canals in individuals interpreted as late subadults or adults (>80% largest size). Most elements displayed several (3+) growth marks, though growth marks were more faithfully recorded in the epipodials of Permian individuals. Pearson product-moment correlation tests were performed to examine the relationship between size and robusticity on growth proxies (% cortical vascularity, mean primary osteon diameter), but variation in histomorphology could not be explained by size alone. Variation in body size may be affected by differences in juvenile growth rate and duration, which are highly variable in environmentally stressed extant reptile species. Geologic stage was a more consistent predictor of cortical vascularity. We suggest that Permian and Triassic Moschorhinus exhibited differential rates of early skeletal growth, corroborating the hypothesis that increased environmental variability in the earliest Triassic was associated with rapid growth to a minimum body size requirement and, consequently, shortened developmental times.

Wayne E. Thogmartin, Carol A. Sanders-Reed, Jennifer A. Szymanski, Patrick C. McKann, Lori Pruitt, R. Andrew King, Michael C. Runge, Robin E. Russell, White-nose syndrome is likely to extirpate the endangered Indiana bat over large parts of its range, Biological Conservation, Volume 160, April 2013, Pages 162-172, ISSN 0006-3207, 10.1016/j.biocon.2013.01.010.
White-nose syndrome, a novel fungal pathogen spreading quickly through cave-hibernating bat species in east and central North America, is responsible for killing millions of bats. We developed a stochastic, stage-based population model to forecast the population dynamics of the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) subject to white-nose syndrome. Our population model explicitly incorporated environmentally imposed annual variability in survival and reproductive rates and demographic stochasticity in predictions of extinction. With observed rates of disease spread, >90% of wintering populations were predicted to experience white-nose syndrome within 20 years, causing the proportion of populations at the quasi-extinction threshold of less than 250 females to increase by 33.9% over 50 years. At the species’ lowest median population level, ca. year 2022, we predicted 13.7% of the initial population to remain, totaling 28,958 females (95% CI = 13,330; 92,335). By 2022, only 12 of the initial 52 wintering populations were expected to possess wintering populations of >250 females. If the species can acquire immunity to the disease, we predict 3.7% of wintering populations to be above 250 females after 50 years (year 2057) after a 69% decline in abundance (from 210,741 to 64,768 [95% CI = 49,386; 85,360] females). At the nadir of projections, we predicted regional quasi-extirpation of wintering populations in 2 of 4 Recovery Units while in a third region, where the species is currently most abundant, >95% of the wintering populations were predicted to be below 250 females. Our modeling suggests white-nose syndrome is capable of bringing about severe numerical reduction in population size and local and regional extirpation of the Indiana bat.

Effects of lead on the plasma electrolytes of a freshwater fish, Heteropneustes fossilis
Srivastav AK, Rai R, Suzuki N, Mishra D, Srivastav SK
International Aquatic Research 2013, 5:4 (27 February 2013)
The freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis, was subjected to 657.6 mg/L (0.8 of 96 h LC50) and 164.4 mg/L (0.2 of 96 h LC50) of lead nitrate for short-term and long-term experiment, respectively. Blood from fish was collected on 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in short term and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in long-term experiment. Plasma calcium and phosphate levels were determined at these intervals. After short-term lead exposure, the plasma calcium levels of the fish remained unaffected at 24 h. The levels exhibited a decrease after 48 h which persisted until the end of the experiment (96 h). Following 48 h of lead exposure to the fish, the plasma phosphate levels remained unchanged. The values exhibited a progressive decrease from 72 h onwards. The plasma calcium levels of the fish exposed to lead for 7 days exhibited a decrease. This decrease persisted progressively until the end of the experiment (28 days). The plasma phosphate levels of lead-exposed fish remained unaffected until day 14. The levels decreased progressively from 21 days onwards.

Circulating carotenoid levels are negatively associated with previous reproductive success in Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens)
A.A. Cohen, R. Bowman, R.K. Boughton, E. Bridge, R.S. Heiss, S.J. Schoech, K.J. McGraw
Canadian Journal of Zoology, 2013, 91:64-70, 10.1139/cjz-2012-0243
The relationship between individual fitness and antioxidants and oxidative stress has come under increasing scrutiny of late. In particular, associations between oxidative balance indicators and reproductive success in the wild have been inconsistent in the limited prior work on this topic. Studies spanning multiple seasons and antioxidant types are particularly lacking. Here, we examined associations between reproductive success over two breeding seasons and several metrics of circulating antioxidants (antioxidant capacity, uric acid, carotenoids, and vitamin E, measured in the intervening nonbreeding season) in Florida Scrub-Jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens (Bosc, 1795)). We found that carotenoid levels in the nonbreeding season were negatively associated with reproductive success in the preceding breeding season but unassociated with that in the subsequent breeding season. This correlation may be driven by the cost of reproduction (i.e., carotenoid depletion while breeding) or some other unmeasured and intercorrelated variable such as diet. Antioxidant capacity, uric acid, and vitamin E were not associated with reproductive success. These data are consistent with an emerging theme in physiological ecology: that antioxidants and oxidative stress are but one part of a suite of integrative physiological systems that interact and trade-off in complex ways, making full understanding of their ecological roles challenging.

Detecting between-individual differences in hind-foot length in populations of wild mammals
J.G.A. Martin, M. Festa-Bianchet, S.D. Côté, D.T. Blumstein
Canadian Journal of Zoology, Published on the web 24 January 2013, 10.1139/cjz-2012-0210
Hind-foot length is a widely used index of skeletal size in population ecology. The accuracy of hind-foot measurements, however, has not been estimated. We quantified measurement error in adult hind-foot length in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris (Audubon and Bachman, 1841)), mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus (de Blainville, 1816)), and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis Shaw, 1804) from long-term capture–recapture studies. Fitting a linear mixed effect model for each species separately, we found that hind-foot length was significantly repeatable in the three species, but repeatability was low, ranging from 0.30 to 0.47. Measurement error explained 53%–66% of the variance in foot length. Differences of 6, 13, and 27 mm would be indistinguishable from measurement error for marmots, goats, and sheep, respectively. At least 4–6 measures per individual were needed to detect variation in foot length between individuals of a population using a mixed effect model. Researchers should strive to limit measurement errors because inaccurate measures may obscure important biological patterns.

Paolucci, E. M., MacIsaac, H. J., Ricciardi, A. (2013), Origin matters: alien consumers inflict greater damage on prey populations than do native consumers. Diversity and Distributions. doi: 10.1111/ddi.12073
Introduced alien species are frequently implicated in ecosystem disruption and biodiversity loss, but some ecologists have recently argued that efforts to manage ecosystems should be refocused on known problematic species without regard to whether such species are native or alien. This argument rests on the premise that native and alien species in general do not differ in their impacts. Although there are numerous cases that suggest alien predators and herbivores can sometimes cause severe declines or even local extinctions of native species, very few studies have compared the impacts of native and alien consumers on native populations.
We have conducted a meta-analysis on a global dataset to compare the effects of native and alien predators and herbivores on native populations occupying a broad range of terrestrial and aquatic environments.
The distribution of positive, negative and neutral effects on native prey abundance differed significantly by consumer origin, with alien consumers associated with more negative and fewer positive effects than expected, opposite the finding for native consumers. The effect size of alien consumers was 2.4 times greater than that of native consumers and did not differ between predators and herbivores. The impact of alien consumers did not differ significantly in aquatic (lakes, rivers, oceans) versus terrestrial (continental, island) habitats. Similarly, there was no significant interaction between consumer origin and location, as consumers had similar effects in insular (freshwater, island) and open (continental, marine) systems – contrary to the notion that alien species impacts are mainly problematic for island biota.
Main conclusions
We hypothesize that the ecological naïveté of native biota facilitates their enhanced suppression by alien predators and herbivores relative to native enemies. Our results counter the assertion that the biogeographical origin of species has no bearing on their ecological impact.

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