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Wagner, C. M., Rice, P. H. and Pease, A. P. (2013), First record of dicephalia in a bull shark Carcharhinus leucas (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhinidae) foetus from the Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. Journal of Fish Biology. doi: 10.1111/jfb.12064
The first recorded incidence of dicephalia in a bull shark Carcharhinus leucas is reported from a foetus collected by a fisherman in the Gulf of Mexico near Florida, U.S.A. External examination, Radiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a case of monosomic dicephalia where the axial skeleton and internal organs were found to divide into parallel systems anterior to the pectoral girdle resulting in two well-developed heads.

Zootaxa 3635 (4): 379–401 (28 Mar. 2013)
Diversity within the Redeye Bass, Micropterus coosae (Perciformes: Centrarchidae) species group, with descriptions of four new species

The Redeye Bass, Micropterus coosae, was described from the Mobile River basin, Chattahoochee, and Savannah rivers
in Alabama and Georgia, USA, by Hubbs and Bailey (1940). At that time the authors recognized significant variation in
the Black Warrior River population, and noted that with further study this form may be recognized as a separate taxon. An examination of variation in morphology and mitochondrial DNA supported this observation, and highlighted additional
species-level variation, resulting in descriptions of a total of four new species: Micropterus cahabae, new sp., restricted to the Cahaba River system; Micropterus tallapoosae, new sp., restricted to the Tallapoosa River system; Micropterus warriorensis, new sp., from the Black Warrior River system; and Micropterus chattahoochae, new sp., from the Chattahoochee River system. Micropterus coosae is restricted to the Coosa River system. The new species differ from each other and from M. coosae by a combination of pigmentation and scale count characteristics, development of the tooth patch, and divergence within the ND2 gene. While two of these species are relatively common in upland streams within their ranges, M. warriorensis, M. cahabae and M. chattahoochae are uncommon and may warrant protection.

Zootaxa 3635 (4): 419–438 (28 Mar. 2013)
Revision of the peristediid genus Satyrichthys (Actinopterygii: Teleostei) with the description of a new species, S. milleri sp. nov.

The Indo-Pacific peristediid genus Satyrichthys Kaup, 1873 was first diagnosed as having a broad head with mesethmoid,
postocular, parietal and preopercular spines. Later, most ichthyologists characterized Satyrichthys by its toothless jaws and strong preopercular spine. Kawai (2008) divided Satyrichthys into two genera, Satyrichthys and Scalicus, on the basis of a phylogenetic hypothesis, and redefined Satyrichthys. Seven species of Satyrichthys are recognized here, including one new species: S. clavilapis, S. laticeps, S. longiceps, S. millerisp. nov., S. moluccensis, S. rieffeli and S. welchi. The new species is distinguished from its congeners in having equilateral-triangular rostral projections, 4 lip and 4 chin barbels, and no anterior directed spines on the upper lateral row of the caudal peduncle. Satyrichthys laticeps, previously treated as a junior synonym of S. moluccensis, is regarded as a valid species. The following new synonyms are noted: S. adeni, S. halyi and S. magnus are all junior synonyms of S. laticeps; S. isokawae is a junior synonym of S. moluccensis; and S. lingi is a junior synonym of S. welchi. In addition, a neotype is designated for S. moluccensis.

Zootaxa 3635 (4): 459–475 (28 Mar. 2013)
A new species of Leposoma (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with four fingers from the Atlantic Forest central corridor in Bahia, Brazil

Leposoma sinepollex sp. nov., a new species of the scincoides group, is described from a mountain region in the Atlantic Forest central corridor in state of Bahia, Brazil. The new species is characterized by elongate dorsal and lanceolate ventral scales arranged in diagonal rows, a single and smooth frontonasal, five supraoculars, absence of pollex, third toe as long as or longer than fourth, absence of striations in lower part of head, parietals longer than wide and as long as interparietal, 27–29 dorsals, 25–29 scales around body, 17–19 ventrals, 12–14 total pores in the male (absent in females), 9–10 and 9–11 subdigital lamellae respectively under IV Finger and IV Toe, and strong sexual color dichromatism with a black pigmentation in the ventral parts of males, creamy in females. The new species is morphologically similar to Leposoma nanodactylus, sharing with it among other features the synapomorphic division of the first supraocular. Phylogenetic analyses of 981 bp of combined sequences (cyt b+ ND4) recovered also a strongly supported (PP=1,0; BP=100) sister relationship between both species. The new species and Leposoma nanodactylus are placed sister to all the other Atlantic Forest species, with L. baturitensis being the first to diverge in this radiation. We discuss the distribution of the Atlantic Forest Leposoma, as well as possible scenarios for the origin of the new species.

Werner, P., Lötters, S., Schmidt, B. R., Engler, J. O. and Rödder, D. (2013), The role of climate for the range limits of parapatric European land salamanders. Ecography. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0587.2013.00242.x
Abrupt range limits of parapatric species may serve as a model system to understand the factors that determine species’ range borders. Theory suggests that parapatric range limits can be caused by abiotic conditions along environmental gradients, biotic interactions or a combination of both. Geographic ranges of the parapatric salamanders, Salamandra salamandra and S. atra, meet in small contact zones in the European Alps and to date, the cause of parapatry and the restricted range of S. atra remain elusive. We combine multivariate approaches and climatic data analysis to explore niche differentiation among the two salamanders with respect to the available climatic environment at their contact zones. Our purpose is to evaluate whether climatic conditions explain the species’ sharp range limits or if biotic interactions may play a role for range delimitation. Analyses were carried out in three contact zones in Switzerland to assess possible geographic variation. Our results indicate that both species occur at localities with different climatic conditions as well as the presence of a strong climatic gradient across the species’ range limits. Although the species’ climatic niches differ moderately (with a wider niche breadth for S. atra), interspecific niche overlap is found. Comparisons among the contact zones confirm geographic variation in the species’ climatic niches as well as in the conditions within the geographically available space. Our results suggest that the change in climatic conditions along the recognized gradient represents a determining factor for species’ range limits within contact zones. However, our analyses of geographic variation in climatic conditions reveal that both salamander species can occur in a much wider range of conditions than observed within contact zones. This finding and the interspecific climatic niche overlap within each contact zone provides indirect evidence that biotic interactions (likely competition) between the two species may also determine their range limits.

The role of ecological variation in driving divergence of sexual and non-sexual traits in the red-backed fairy-wren (Malurus melanocephalus)
Baldassarre DT, Thomassen HA, Karubian J, Webster MS
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013

Many species exhibit geographic variation in sexual signals, and divergence in these traits may lead to speciation. Sexual signals may diverge due to differences in ecology if the environment constrains signal production or transmission. Alternatively, sexual signals may diverge stochastically through sexual selection or genetic drift, with little environmental influence. To distinguish between these alternatives we quantified variation in two putative sexual signals — tail length and plumage color — and a suite of non-sexual morphometric traits across the geographic range of the red-backed fairy-wren (Malurus melanocephalus). We then tested for associations between these traits and a number of environmental variables using generalized dissimilarity models.
Variation in morphometric traits was explained well by environmental variation, irrespective of geographic distance between sites. Among putative signals, variation in plumage color was best explained by geographic distance, whereas tail length was best explained by environmental variation. Divergence in male plumage color was not coincident with the boundary between genetic lineages, but was greatest across a contact zone located 300 km east of the genetic boundary.
Morphometric traits describing size and shape have likely been subject to ecological selection and thus appear to track local environmental variation regardless of subspecies identity. Ecological selection appears to have also influenced the evolution of tail length as a signal, but has played a limited role in shaping geographic variation in plumage color, consistent with stochastic divergence in concert with Fisherian selection on this trait. The lack of coincidence between the genetic boundary and the contact zone between plumage types suggests that the sexual plumage signal of one subspecies has introgressed into the genetic background of the other. Thus, this study provides insight into the various ways in which signal evolution may occur within a species, and the geographic patterns of signal variation that can arise, especially following secondary contact.

Direct and Indirect Interactions between an Invasive Alien Fish (Perccottus glenii) and Two Native Semi-aquatic Snakes
Andrey N. Reshetnikov, Sergey G. Sokolov, Igor V. Chikhlyaev, Alexandr I. Fayzulin, Alexandr A. Kirillov, Alexandr E. Kuzovenko, Ekaterina N. Protasova, and Maxim O. Skomorokhov
Copeia 2013 2013 (1), 103-110

The ecological links of aquatic invasive fish and native reptiles are rarely studied. Thus, we analyzed the diet and helminth composition of a recently introduced invasive alien fish (the Rotan, Perccottus glenii) and of two native semi-aquatic snakes (the Dice Snake Natrix tessellata, the Grass Snake N. natrix) in Cranberry Lake, Russia. We also studied diet and helminthes of water frogs (Pelophylax spp.) as a potential mechanism of transmission of parasites. We identified 19 prey taxa and four helminthes for P. glenii, 21 and 24 for Pelophylax spp., and two and 16 for the snakes. The piscivorous N. tessellata has been feeding on P. glenii since its introduction and the subsequent elimination of native fish. Although we did not find P. glenii in the diet of the mainly frog-eating N. natrix, helminth analysis indicated that this snake may prey upon this fish. Both studied snakes contracted the parasitic tapeworm Ophiotaenia europaea from P. glenii. Therefore, the invasive fish and the native snakes demonstrate direct (consumption of fish by snakes) and indirect (transmitting of parasite species) interspecies interactions, which link aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Thus, the invasive fish P. glenii replaced the eliminated native fish in the food web of this lake inhabited by semi-aquatic snakes and became part of the parasite system that includes the native snakes. This is the first evidence of indirect interactions between P. glenii and native reptiles.

Ontogeny of Larval and Juvenile Black Redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei)
Christopher M. Bunt, Thom Heiman, and Nicholas E. Mandrak
Copeia 2013 2013 (1), 121-126

Adult Black Redhorse (Moxostoma duquesnei) were seined from the Grand River, Ontario and artificially spawned in May 2007 and May 2008. Eggs hatched after 9–16 days at a mean temperature of 20°C, and after 11–25 days at a mean temperature of 17°C. Eggs did not develop fully at temperatures <11°C. Eggs and development of larvae between 9 and 24 mm TL, and juveniles up to 35 mm TL are described. Ontogeny of larval and juvenile Black Redhorse was compared to that of Greater Redhorse (Moxostoma valenciennesi), River Redhorse (Moxostoma carinatum), Golden Redhorse (Moxostoma erythrurum), Shorthead Redhorse (Moxostoma macrolepidotum), Copper Redhorse (Moxostoma hubbsi), and Spotted Sucker (Minytrema melanops). There was significant overlap between most meristic variables compared. However, the majority of Black Redhorse in this study (up to 18 mm TL) generally had higher myomere counts that were different from most other redhorse species. These data, in combination with knowledge of variation in congeneric distributions and differences in spawning windows, may allow identification of Black Redhorse as small as 9 mm TL.

A New Species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the Lower Amazon
Luiz Antônio Wanderley Peixoto and Wolmar B. Wosiacki
Copeia 2013 2013 (1), 52-57

Characidium papachibe, new species, is described from the Rio Aruã, tributary of the Rio Tapajós basin, lower Amazon, State of Pará, Brazil. The new species can be easily distinguished from its congeners, except C. serrano and C. heirmostigmata, by the presence of anteriorly oblique, midlateral bands centered on lateral line or just ventral thereof and not reaching either the dorsum or the ventrum. Characidium papachibe is distinguished from C. serrano, C. heirmostigmata, and its psammophile congeners by the arrangement and number of the anteriorly oblique bars on the body sides, and by a simultaneous occurrence of morphometric and meristic characters. Comments about species groups are presented.

Martín, J., López, P. and García, L. V. (2013), Soil characteristics determine microhabitat selection of the fossorial amphisbaenian Trogonophis wiegmanni. Journal of Zoology. doi: 10.1111/jzo.12033
Amphisbaenians are reptiles specialized for a fossorial lifestyle, which may limit their opportunities for microhabitat selection in comparison with epigeal reptiles. We hypothesized that, given the fossorial habits of amphisbaenians, a detailed analysis of the physical and chemical properties of the soil may reveal their patterns of habitat use. We investigated microhabitat and soil use by a population of the amphisbaenian Trogonophis wiegmanni from the Chafarinas Islands (North-West Africa) and compared them with those available in the habitat. Results showed that some soil physical and chemical characteristics determined microhabitat use by T. wiegmanni. Amphisbaenians selected soils that were relatively sandy, basic, carbonated and shallow, having a high cover of medium-sized rocks, whereas they avoided marine salinized, more acid and deeper heavy-textured soils (i.e. with percentages of silt comparatively high), and those covered mainly by small rocks. No differences were found between soils with and without influence of seabird colonies, although this was the main driver of soil chemical variations in these Islands. Vegetation cover per se did not seem to have a direct influence on microhabitat use. We discuss how energetic costs of burrowing and the direct and indirect influences of soil chemical properties could explain these patterns of habitat use.

Maaria Kilpi, Sami Nikoskelainen, Sanna Grannas, Jari Nuutila, Otso Järvisalo, Antti Kause, Esa-Matti Lilius, Resistance to bacterial infectious diseases in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, Available online 28 March 2013, ISSN 0165-2427, 10.1016/j.vetimm.2013.03.010.
Individually tagged rainbow trout representing 15 full-sibling families were sequentially challenged twice with Aeromonas salmonicida causing furunculosis: first as cohabitation and then as injected intraperitoneally. The bleeding procedure prior to challenges caused the outbreak of cold water disease by Flavobacterium psychrophilum. Before and after the outbreak and challenges, 11 immunological parameters were measured from blood samples.
The immunological responses predicted the fate of the fish since nearly all the initial responses were lower in individuals which later died from cold water disease than in survivors. Fish died from furunculosis had impaired respiratory burst (RB) response to A. salmonicida. Fish that had initially the highest responses survived in the outbreak and challenges. The outbreak and challenges resulted in these individuals higher and faster responses compared with initial values. Unlike in mammals, the number of monocytes, but not that of granulocytes, in rainbow trout blood correlated well with the whole blood RB activity. The fish families differed markedly from each other in capacity to resist the induced diseases.

Adriana Botero, Craig K. Thompson, Christopher S. Peacock, Peta L. Clode, Philip K. Nicholls, Adrian F. Wayne, Alan J. Lymbery, R.C. Andrew Thompson, Trypanosomes genetic diversity, polyparasitism and the population decline of the critically endangered Australian marsupial, the brush tailed bettong or woylie (Bettongia penicillata), International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, Available online 29 March 2013, ISSN 2213-2244, 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.03.001.
While much is known of the impact of trypanosomes on human and livestock health, trypanosomes in wildlife, although ubiquitous, have largely been considered to be non-pathogenic. We describe the genetic diversity, tissue tropism and potential pathogenicity of trypanosomes naturally infecting Western Australian marsupials. Blood samples collected from 554 live-animals and 250 tissue samples extracted from 50 carcasses of sick-euthanized or road-killed animals, belonging to 10 species of marsupials, were screened for the presence of trypanosomes using a PCR of the 18S rDNA gene. PCR results revealed a rate of infection of 67% in blood and 60% in tissues. Inferred phylogenetic trees using 18S rDNA and glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) sequences showed the presence of eight genotypes that clustered into three clades: a clade including Trypanosoma copemani, a new clade closely related to Trypanosoma gilletti, and a clade including Trypanosoma H25 from an Australian kangaroo. Trypanosome infections were compared in a declining and in a stable population of the endangered Australian marsupial, the brush tailed bettong or woylie (Bettongia penicillata). This marsupial showed high rates of infection with Clade A genotypes (96%) in the declining population, whereas in the stable population, Clade B genotypes were predominant (89%). Mixed infections were common in woylies from the declining but not from the stable population. Histopathological findings associated with either mixed or single infections involving Clade A genotypes, showed a strong inflammatory process and tissue degeneration predominantly in heart, oesophagus and tongue. Trypanosomes were successfully grown in culture and for the first time we demonstrate that a genotype within Clade A has the capacity to not only colonize different tissues in the host but also to invade cells in vitro. These results provide evidence for the potential role of trypanosomes in the decline of a formerly abundant marsupial that is now critically endangered.

AKRAM, M., HUSSAIN, J., AHMAD, S., MEHMOOD, S., REHMAN, A., IQBAL, A., USMAN, M.. Study of Body Measurements and Slaughter Characteristics in Japanese quail as Influenced by Age. Scientific Journal of Zoology, North America, 2, mar. 2013. Available at: <http://www.sjournals.com/index.php/SJZ/article/view/634>.
The study wasconducted at Avian Research and Training Centre, UVAS Lahore, Pakistan in orderto quantify changes in body measurements and slaughter characteristics as aresponse to aging (3rd, 4th and 5th week)respectively. For this purpose seventy two birds were slaughtered each week.The analysis of data through one way ANOVA in Completely Randomized Design(CRD) and the comparison of means using Least Significant Difference (LSD) test,with the help of SAS 9.1 showedsignificant increase in body,keel, drum stick, shank and length of intestine as well as drumstick and shankcircumference with the advancement in age. Heart and intestinal weightpercentage to that of the live weight also increased with the age showing thehighest values for 5th week and the lowest for 3rd weekwhile liver, gizzard and gibletsweight percentage decreased significantly.

The Role of Scent-Marking in Patchy and Highly Fragmented Populations of the Cabrera Vole (Microtus cabrerae Thomas, 1906)
Luis Alexandre Piteira Gomes, António Paulo Pereira Mira, and Eduardo Nuno Barata
Zoological Science 2013 30 (4), 248-254

Rodent scent-marking is often used for territorial defence and self-advertisement, and both functions often entail the continuous scent-marking of a large area with high costs. In species with highly-fragmented populations and low density, in which the likelihood of social encounters is low, the costs of continuous scent-marking might exceed the associated fitness benefits; therefore, less intensive scent-marking only to signal presence to the opposite sex may be used. This hypothesis was tested in captivity with the Cabrera vole, a species with highly fragmented and low-density populations. Firstly, to assess the unknown scent-marking behaviour of the Cabrera voles, we conducted an assay wherein voles could scent-mark a clean substrate. Both sexes marked with urine and faeces, but never with anogenital secretions, and the amount of scent-marks was not different between sexes. In the subsequent assay, voles of each sex were given the choice of scent-mark on clean substrates or on substrates previously scent-marked by males or females. Both sexes marked with urine a larger area on substrates pre-marked by the opposite sex than on substrates pre-marked by the same-sex and clean substrates; however, no differences were found in the frequency of fecal boli deposited on the three types of substrate, and no anogenital secretions were found. The clear preference of receivers to scent-mark with urine the substrate pre-marked by the opposite sex strongly suggests that Cabrera voles use urine scent-marking for inter-sexual communication, probably to increase mate-finding likelihood, rather than for territorial defense and/or self-advertisement.

Anders Brodin, A. Utku Urhan, An evaluation of memory accuracy in food hoarding marsh tits Poecile palustris – how accurate are they compared to humans?, Behavioural Processes, Available online 30 March 2013, ISSN 0376-6357, 10.1016/j.beproc.2013.03.009.
Laboratory studies of scatter hoarding birds have become a model system for spatial memory studies. Considering that such birds are known to have a good spatial memory, recovery success in lab studies seems low. In parids (titmice and chickadees) typically ranging between 25-60% if five seeds are cached in 50-128 available caching sites. Since these birds store many thousands of food items in nature in one autumn one might expect that they should easily retrieve five seeds in a laboratory where they know the environment with its caching sites in detail. We designed a laboratory set up to be as similar as possible with previous studies and trained wild caught marsh tits Poecile palustris to store and retrieve in this set up. Our results agree closely with earlier studies, of the first ten looks around 40% were correct when the birds had stored five seeds in 100 available sites both 5 and 24 hours after storing. The cumulative success curve suggests high success during the first 15 looks where after it declines. Humans performed much better, in the first five looks most subjects were 100% correct. We discuss possible reasons for why the birds were not doing better.

Effects of supplemental winter feeding on House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) in relation to landscape structure and farming systems in southern Sweden
Maria Von Post, Martin Stjernman, Henrik G. Smith
Bird Study

House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) populations in south Swedish farmland are not affected by supplemental winter feeding, irrespective of agricultural landscape type or presence of animal husbandry, although winter populations declined more in mixed farmland and when farms contained animal husbandry.
To investigate whether food limitation of House Sparrow population size during the winter varied spatially in relation to agricultural landscape intensification and farm management.
We experimentally increased the winter food supply for populations on farmsteads in replicated landscapes that differed in agricultural intensification (open plains versus mixed farming) and/or farm management (crop farming versus animal husbandry), and estimated possible differences in effects on winter population change.
We found no effect of supplementary winter feeding on changes in House Sparrow population sizes over the winter, irrespective of agricultural landscape type or presence of animal husbandry at the farm. However, we found a significantly larger winter population decline in mixed farmland and when farms contained animal husbandry.
Conclusions The results suggest that House Sparrow populations in south Swedish farmland are not primarily limited by winter food availability. Alternatively, supplemental winter feeding may augment interspecific competition or attracts predators, offsetting any positive effect on population change. However, the stronger population decline in landscapes in which more breeding resources may be available (animal husbandry farms, mixed farmland), suggests stronger intraspecific competition during the winter in line with the resource separation hypothesis.

Hybridization between sister taxa versus non-sister taxa: a case study in birds
Ali Gholamhosseini, Michalis Vardakis, Mansour Aliabadian, Vincent Nijman, Ronald Vonk
Bird Study

Sister taxa hybridize more frequently than non-sister taxa.
To test whether the frequency of hybridization is higher in avian sister species than in non-sister species, based on molecular phylogenetic relationships and reports of hybridizing bird species globally.
A literature based survey of hybridizing bird species was conducted on genera that: (1) have a completely known phylogenetic molecular tree for at least 90% of the total number of species, (2) have at least four species, (3) have an incidence of hybridization more than 25% recorded from the wild, and (4) have at least two pairs of hybridizing species. The frequency of hybridization for avian sister species was compared to that of non-sister species.
Twenty-nine genera were identified that met our four selection criteria. In 25 genera, sister species hybridized more than non-sister species (mean frequencies of 0.52 ± 0.35 versus 0.16 ± 0.13).
The frequency of hybridization within sister species was found to be higher than within non-sister species.

Lambert, S. M., Geneva, A. J., Luke Mahler, D. and Glor, R. E. (2013), Using genomic data to revisit an early example of reproductive character displacement in Haitian Anolis lizards. Molecular Ecology. doi: 10.1111/mec.12292
The pattern of reproductive character displacement (RCD)—in which traits associated with reproductive isolation are more different where two species occur together than where they occur in isolation—is frequently attributed to reinforcement, a process during which natural selection acting against maladaptive mating events leads to enhanced prezygotic isolation between species or incipient species. One of the first studies of RCD to include molecular genetic data was described 40 years ago in a complex of Haitian trunk anole lizards using a small number of allozyme loci. In this example, Anolis caudalis appears to experience divergence in the color and pattern of an extensible throat fan, or dewlap, in areas of contact with closely related species at the northern and southern limits of its range. However, this case study has been largely overlooked for decades; meanwhile, explanations for geographic variation in dewlap color and pattern have focused primarily on adaptation to local signalling environments. We reinvestigate this example using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genome scans, mtDNA sequence data, information on dewlap phenotypes and GIS data on environmental variation to test the hypothesis of RCD generated by reinforcement in Haitian trunk anoles. Together, our phenotypic and genetic results are consistent with RCD at the southern and northern limits of the range of A. caudalis. We evaluate the evidence for reinforcement as the explanation for RCD in Haitian trunk anoles, consider alternative explanations and provide suggestions for future work on the relationship between dewlap variation and speciation in Haitian trunk anoles.

Liangjie Zhao, Xiaoyu Zhou, Qigen Liu, Hong Zhang, Genetic variation and Phylogeography of Sinibrama Macrops (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in Qiantang River Basin, China, Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Volume 49, August 2013, Pages 10-20, ISSN 0305-1978, 10.1016/j.bse.2013.01.007.
A 924 bp segment of the mitochondrial control region (d-loop) was sequenced and analyzed in 334 specimens of Sinibrama macrops from 13 sites in Qiantang River Basin, China. Haplotype diversity (h = 0.724 ± 0.063) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.00263 ± 0.00027) were lowest in Shengzhou population which had been separated from mainstream of Qiantang River Basin by seawater. The results of pairwise Fst values and average genetic distance revealed significant divergence between Shengzhou and other populations. No geographic clustering was observed in haplotype network, suggesting that there were gene flow among populations except Shengzhou. Pairwise mismatch distributions and Tajima’s d-test showed demographic history of Shengzhou population was different from others. Base on the analysis of mitochondrial control region, the differentiation of Shengzhou population was considered to be the result of the transgression and regression in the last interglacial period.

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