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Wei J. Mu, Hai S. Wen, Ji F. Li, Feng He
Cloning and expression analysis of Foxl2 during the reproductive cycle in Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
April 2013

Foxl2 is a member of the winged helix/forkhead family of transcription factors and is known to regulate ovarian aromatase, which plays a crucial role in ovarian differentiation. To address the role of Foxl2 in gonads and brain during gonadal development, we isolated the full-length cDNA of Foxl2 and analyzed its spatiotemporal expression patterns in the viviparous teleost Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli. Tissue distribution pattern revealed that the Foxl2 was detected in the liver, fat, gill, brain, and ovary, but could hardly be found in the testis. Reverse transcriptase PCR suggested that Foxl2 in Korean rockfish may involve in ovary development in the study of expression level during gonads development. It also revealed that the stage of highest expression level for Foxl2 was almost much earlier than cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b during the gonadal development stage in gonads and brain except for cyp19a1a in brain. Furthermore, the expression pattern of Foxl2 as well as aromatases may imply the role of Foxl2 in the up-regulation of aromatases not only in the female fish but also in male.

Chin, A., Heupel, M., Simpfendorfer, C. and Tobin, A. (2013), Ontogenetic movements of juvenile blacktip reef sharks: evidence of dispersal and connectivity between coastal habitats and coral reefs. Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst.. doi: 10.1002/aqc.2349
1. Connectivity between coastal habitats and mid-shelf and offshore coral reefs is a topical issue in the conservation and management of fishes and coastal ecosystems.
2. Coastal habitats provide a range of ecosystem functions for sharks and rays and the use of coastal ecosystems by these species affects conservation and management outcomes. There is a growing need to better understand movement and habitat use patterns given recorded declines of many shark and ray species around the world.
3. This study presents evidence of connectivity of blacktip reef sharks between coastal and offshore habitats, with juveniles dispersing from natal grounds at the onset of maturity and moving to new locations including offshore coral reefs.
4. These dispersal patterns differ from previous accounts of reef shark movements and provide new evidence of connectivity among coastal habitats and offshore coral reefs.
5. These large-scale movements may help to maintain genetic diversity of populations, and could increase the resilience of blacktip reef shark populations to localized pressures. These movement and connectivity patterns also illustrate the potential importance of coastal habitats to reef shark conservation.

Castaldelli, G., Pluchinotta, A., Milardi, M., Lanzoni, M., Giari, L., Rossi, R. and Fano, E. A. (2013), Introduction of exotic fish species and decline of native species in the lower Po basin, north-eastern Italy. Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst.. doi: 10.1002/aqc.2345
1. Freshwater ecosystems worldwide are experiencing native fish losses with severe threats to the conservation of freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and the debate on whether the cause is biotic or abiotic disturbance is still open.
2. Temporal variation in fish assemblages was analysed over an 18 year period in 14 waterways of the lowland backwaters of the Po River in north-eastern Italy, which are important feeding, spawning and nursery sites for native fish.
3. In 1991, 14 native and eight exotic species were collected. In less than 20 years 10 native species underwent local extinction, three of which – Rutilus pigus, Rutilus aula, and Chondrostoma soetta – were endemic to the Padano-Veneto District in northern Italy.
4. Ordination of the data (MDS, CLUSTER, ANOSIM, SIMPER) showed a clear temporal gradient in fish community structure. After the establishment of the exotic predator Silurus glanis, some native species significantly declined in abundance and biomass (i.e. Alburnus arborella and Scardinius erythrophthalmus) or disappeared (i.e. Rutilus aula and Tinca tinca). Moreover, exotic species Cyprinus carpio, Ameiurus melas, and Carassius auratus from previous introductions, underwent significant changes in their abundance and biomass. No correlation was found between fish community structure and water quality parameters (BIOENV).
5. The success of exotic species, particularly S. glanis which thrived in this degraded habitat, seems to have led to the decline of native fish fauna in the canals of the lower portion of the Po River basin. Conservation strategies focusing on the containment of exotic species and habitat restoration are recommended.

Rodríguez-Peña, N., Stoner, K. E., Ayala-Berdon, J., Flores-Ortiz, C. M., Duran, A., Schondube, J. E. (2013), Nitrogen and amino acids in nectar modify food selection of nectarivorous bats. Journal of Animal Ecology. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12069
1. Chiropterophilic flowers secrete sugar nectar with low-Nitrogen (N hereafter) content and small amounts of amino acids, which may function to attract animals; nevertheless, the role that micronutrients have on the foraging decisions of Neotropical nectarivorous bats is unknown.
2. We offered the nectar specialist Leptonycteris yerbabueanae and the omnivore Glossophaga soricina pairs of experimental diets mimicking either the N content or the relative abundance of 17 amino acids found in the floral nectar from the main plant species visited by these bats in a tropical dry forest. We addressed the following research questions: (i) Do bats select N-containing or sugar-only nectar differently based on bats‘ N nutritional status? (ii) Does the presence of N in nectar affect the capacity of bats to discriminate and select other nectar traits such as sugar concentration? and (iii) Are bats able to distinguish among the flavours generated by the amino acid relative abundance present in the nectar from plants they typically encounter in nature?
3. Our results showed that: (i) bats did not consider nectar N content regardless of their N nutritional condition, (ii) the nectar specialist L. yerbabuenae showed a preference for the most concentrated sugar-only nectar but changed to be indifferent when nectar contained N, and (iii) L. yerbabuenae preferred diets without amino acids and preferred the taste of the amino acids present in the nectar of Pachycereus pecten (Cactaceae) over those present in the nectar of Ceiba aesculifolia (Bombacaceae).
4. Our results suggest that regardless of the low concentrations at which N and amino acids are present in floral nectar, their presence affects bats‘ food selection by interfering with the bats‘ ability to detect differences in sugar concentrations, and by offering particular flavours that can be perceived and selected by nectarivorous bats. We discuss the ecological implications of the presence of N and amino acids in nectar on bats‘ foraging decisions.

Zootaxa 3636 (1): 85–100 (3 Apr. 2013)
A new red-eyed treefrog of Agalychnis (Anura: Hylidae: Phyllomedusinae) from middle Magdalena River valley of Colombia with comments on its phylogenetic position
MAURICIO RIVERA-CORREA, FELIPE DUARTE-CUBIDES, JOSÉ VICENTE RUEDA-ALMONACID & JUAN M. DAZA

We describe a new species of the charismatic red-eyed treefrogs (genus Agalychnis) from middle Magdalena River valley of Colombia (05°50’8.04’’N, 74°50’16.55’’W, 380 m a.s.l.). The new species is readily distinguished from all species members of the group by having orange flanks with small white warts. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of 16S rRNA gene recovered the new species as a member of the Agalychnis callidryas group. The presence of a red hue in the iris and a golden reticulated palpebral membrane, putative synapomorphies of the clade, support this hypothesis. Our analysis
suggests that Agalychnis terranova sp. nov is closely related to A. callidryas from Central America and is proposed as its sister species with an uncorrected genetic distance of 5.69% between these taxa. The phylogenetic position and the geographic distribution of the new taxon add new lights to the presence of a biogeographic disjunction between Middle America lowlands, the Pacific region and Magdalena River valley of Colombia.

Zootaxa 3636 (1): 171–189 (3 Apr. 2013)
A new species of African Mole-rat (Fukomys, Bathyergidae, Rodentia) from the Zaire-Zambezi Watershed
PAUL A.A.G. VAN DAELE, PIETER BLONDÉ, ROBERT STJERNSTEDT & DOMINIQUE ADRIAENS

A new species of bathyergid mole-rat, Fukomys vandewoestijneae, is described from an area on the Zaïre-Zambezi watershed, centred on the Ikelenge pedicle in the North-Western province of Zambia. It is diagnosed by a unique combination of morphological (size, lack of clear headmarks), chromosomal (2n= 44) and DNA sequence characteristics. This medium-sized species belongs to the Giant mole-rat “F. mechowii” clade, which was hitherto considered monotypic. Its known distribution is limited to the Ikelenge pedicle of Zambia and adjacent areas in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and presumably Angola. Colonies of this social mole-rat were observed in the chanas (dambos), degraded miombo woodland
and in villages. Although presumably sympatric in historical times with F. mechowii, no overlap in the species current distribution could be established. This local endemic species adds further evidence to the conservation importance of the two-pedicle region (Ikelenge pedicle (Zambia)-Katanga pedicle (DRC)).

Schlicht, E. and Kempenaers, B. (2013), EFFECTS OF SOCIAL AND EXTRA-PAIR MATING ON SEXUAL SELECTION IN BLUE TITS (CYANISTES CAERULEUS). Evolution. doi: 10.1111/evo.12073
The contribution of extra-pair paternity (EPP) to sexual selection has received considerable attention, particularly in socially monogamous species. However, the importance of EPP remains difficult to assess quantitatively, especially when many extra-pair young have unknown sires. Here, we combine measurements of the opportunity for selection (I), the opportunity for sexual selection (IS), and the strength of selection on mating success (Bateman gradient, βSS) with a novel simulation of random mating tailored to the specific mating system of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). In a population where social polygyny and EPP are common, the opportunity for sexual selection was significantly stronger and Bateman gradients significantly steeper for resident males than for females. In general, success with the social mate(s) contributed most to variation in male reproductive success. Effects of EPP were small, but significantly higher than expected under random mating. We used sibship analysis to estimate the number of unknown sires in our population. Under the assumption that the unknown sires are nonbreeding males, EPP reduced the variance in and the strength of selection on mating success, a possibility that hitherto has not been considered.

Taylor, E.B.; Darveau, C.-A.; Schulte, P.M. Setting Conservation Priorities in a Widespread Species: Phylogeographic and Physiological Variation in the Lake Chub, Couesius plumbeus (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Diversity 2013, 5, 149-165.
Defining units of conservation below the species level is a widely accepted conservation priority, but is especially challenging for widespread taxa that have experienced diverse geographic histories and exist across heterogenous environments. The lake chub (Pisces: Couesius plumbeus) is a widespread freshwater fish in North America and occurs from the southcentral USA to northwestern Alaska and Canada. We used mtDNA sequence analysis to test for divergent lineages predicted to occur as a result of survival of lake chub in distinct glacial refugia. Lake chub consisted of two major mtDNA lineages separated by 3.8% sequence divergence which are probably late to pre-Pleistocene in origin. We combined these data with those consistent with thermal adaptation in fish living in thermal springs versus those living in a lake with wide seasonal temperature variation, and with data on distribution of lake chub in major watershed units. We assessed these data against objective criteria developed to identify conservation units under Canadian endangered species legislation. Our analysis identified twelve major units of conservation within C. plumbeus that could be assessed under Canada’s Species-at-Risk Act. Our study illustrates how different character traits manifested at very different spatial scales can be used to define conservation units within widely-distributed taxa.

Bruintjes, R., Heg-Bachar, Z., Heg, D. (2013), Subordinate removal affects parental investment, but not offspring survival in a cooperative cichlid. Functional Ecology. doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12088
1. Subordinates in cooperative breeding systems may provide help to dominant pairs, who can benefit by either an increased total investment in their current brood or a reduced personal contribution to this investment. In the social cichlid Julidochromis ornatus, one large male subordinate generally spends 90% of his time in close proximity to the breeding shelter, whereas the dominants only spend 50% of their time close to the shelter.
2. We experimentally removed the large subordinate for 30 days (approximating one breeding cycle) to study the investment strategies of dominants and the effects on offspring survival, while accounting for subordinate immigration. Experimental groups were compared with control groups, from which subordinates were also caught but not removed. On day one following removal, we tested whether dominants overcompensated, fully compensated or undercompensated for absence of the subordinate on several parental behaviours. Moreover, we tested whether the pairs‘ potential compensatory behaviour remained high seven days following large subordinate removal.
3. One day following removal, dominants increased their time spent in the territory and their frequency of breeding shelter visits and defence, compared with the pre-removal phase and control groups. The dominant pair overcompensated for the loss of subordinate help in their breeding shelter visits, fully compensated in defence and undercompensated their time spent in the territory. Seven days after large subordinate removal, behavioural differences between treatments had disappeared. However, when distinguishing between groups with or without a new immigrant subordinate, dominant pairs only diminished investment in the presence of an immigrant, suggesting a compensatory role of the large subordinate. Finally, survival of juvenile group members was not affected by the treatment.
4. Our experiments indicate that the presence of a large subordinate does not increase the dominant pairs‘ current reproductive success, but instead allows them to reduce their personal contribution to investment in the current brood. In addition, we illustrate that dominants may show strikingly different compensatory responses depending on the type of behaviour and emphasize the importance of immigrant subordinates to relieve dominants from costly compensatory responses in cooperative breeding systems.

Tatyana Pinheiro, Stephen F. Ferrari, Maria Aparecida Lopes
Activity budget, diet, and use of space by two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in eastern Amazonia
Primates, April 2013

Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) are widely distributed in the Amazon basin. This study describes the ecological and behavioral patterns of two social groups of S. sciureus in forests adjacent to the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir in eastern Amazonia, including range size, activity budgets, and composition of the diet. The groups were monitored at Base 4 (group B4) and Germoplasma Island (group GI). Quantitative behavioral data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling to record behavior, substrate use, and height. Home ranges were delimited using a GPS to determine group position after each 50 m of movement. Home ranges were 75.0 ha for group B4 (39 members) and 77.5 ha for group GI (32 members). The use of vertical strata was well defined, with a marked preference for the middle and lower levels of the canopy. The activity budgets of both groups were typical of those of other squirrel monkeys and were dominated by foraging (B4 = 48.7 %; GI = 49.6 %), moving (both groups 28.9 %), and feeding (B4 = 14.6 %; GI = 12.4 %). Resting was rare (B4 = 3.5 %; GI = 2.6 %) and less common than social behavior (B4 = 4.3 %; GI = 6.4 %). The diet of both groups was dominated by plant material (B4 = 70.7 % of feeding records; GI = 71.4 %), which is in contrast with the more insectivorous diets recorded for Saimiri at other sites. Group GI spent more time foraging during the dry season, whereas group B4 spent more time in the rainy season when the consumption of fruit increased (significantly, in the case of group GI). The less insectivorous diet of these groups may be due to a number of factors, including the unique habitat configuration at the site and reduced hydrological stress due to the proximity of the reservoir.

Wei Liang, Canchao Yang, Longwu Wang, Anders Pape Møller
Avoiding parasitism by breeding indoors: cuckoo parasitism of hirundines and rejection of eggs
Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, April 2013

Brood parasitism is costly to hosts, and, therefore, a number of anti-parasite defenses have evolved. Surprisingly, several high-quality hosts such as martins and swallows are rarely parasitized, raising the question why that is the case. We hypothesize that martins and swallows may avoid parasitism by breeding in close association with humans, and by building nests that are inaccessible for common cuckoos Cuculus canorus and other brood parasites. Here we show using egg rejection experiments that red-rumped swallows Hirundo daurica, house martins Delichon urbica, and barn swallows Hirundo rustica in Europe do not reject foreign eggs placed in their nests, while barn swallows in China often reject foreign eggs. The frequency of parasitism of barn swallows in Europe was significantly higher than in house martins relative to the expectation based on the abundance of the two species. Barn swallows in Europe that were parasitized by cuckoos more often placed their nests outdoors than expected by chance, suggesting that avoidance of cuckoo parasitism can be achieved by breeding indoors. These findings suggest that barn swallows in China have gained egg rejection behavior because they cannot avoid parasitism when breeding outdoors.

Carroll, E. L., Rayment, W. J., Alexander, A. M., Baker, C. S., Patenaude, N. J., Steel, D., Constantine, R., Cole, R., Boren, L. J. and Childerhouse, S. (2013), Reestablishment of former wintering grounds by New Zealand southern right whales. Marine Mammal Science. doi: 10.1111/mms.12031
Historically, the range of the southern right whale (SRW) included winter calving grounds around the North and South Islands (mainland) of New Zealand (NZ) and in the NZ subantarctic Auckland and Campbell Islands. Due to extensive whaling in the 19th and 20th centuries, no SRW was seen around mainland NZ for nearly four decades (1928–1963). Here we present evidence for the regular use of the mainland NZ wintering ground, presumably from a remnant population that persisted in the NZ subantarctic Auckland and Campbell Islands. SRWs have been sighted every year around mainland NZ since 1988, with 125 sightings during the focus of this work: from 2003 to 2010. There were 28 cow-calf pairs sighted around mainland NZ from 2003 to 2010, compared with 11 sightings from 1991 to 2002. Furthermore, two females, identified by DNA profiles, were sighted with calves around mainland at 4 yr intervals: the first evidence of female site fidelity to the mainland NZ calving ground. Individual identification from photographs of natural markings and DNA profiles provided information on within-year movements and residency around the mainland, and further evidence for exchange between the mainland and subantarctic wintering grounds. Despite these promising signs, the distribution of NZ SRWs remains primarily concentrated in the NZ subantarctic.

Relationships of the Moorish Gecko Tarentola mauritanica Sensu Lato (Reptilia, Phyllodactylidae) Populations in Tunisia: Morphometric and Karyological Assessment
Farjallah Sarra, Amor Nabil, Gharbi Rached, and Said Khaled
Annales Zoologici 2013 63 (1), 149-156

Morphometric and karyological variations were analysed within the Moorish gecko Tarentola mauritanica sensu lato from Tunisia, and compared with already published data. The results show high levels of interspecific variability, indicative of the existence of two distinct lineages: the larger one T. fascicularis, widespread in the south, nearly identical to specimens from Libya and Egypt and the other one, T. m. mauritanica, confined to the northern and central regions, belonging to the common “European” and “North African” morphotype. The observed morphological variation appears to be related to microevolutionary events (phylogenetic variation) derived from a speciation event between the two taxa. We observed that these two lineages also differed in karyotype, such as the shape of some chromosomes and position of NORs. This study highlights the importance of Tunisia as a transition area between eastern and western lineages of Moorish gecko. However, additional genetic studies seem to be essential to infer evolutionary relationships among T. mauritanica populations‘ across North Africa.

K.C. Prager, Denise J. Greig, David P. Alt, Renee L. Galloway, Richard L. Hornsby, Lauren J. Palmer, Jennifer Soper, Qingzhong Wu, Richard L. Zuerner, Frances M.D. Gulland, James O. Lloyd-Smith, Asymptomatic and chronic carriage of Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 164, Issues 1–2, 31 May 2013, Pages 177-183, ISSN 0378-1135, 10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.01.032.
Since 1970, periodic outbreaks of leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes in the genus Leptospira, have caused morbidity and mortality of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) along the Pacific coast of North America. Yearly seasonal epizootics of varying magnitude occur between the months of July and December, with major epizootics occurring every 3–5 years. Genetic and serological data suggest that Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona is the infecting serovar and is enzootic in the California sea lion population, although the mechanism of persistence is unknown. We report asymptomatic carriage of Leptospira in 39% (33/85) of wild, free-ranging sea lions sampled during the epizootic season, and asymptomatic seroconversion with chronic asymptomatic carriage in a rehabilitated sea lion. This is the first report of asymptomatic carriage in wild, free-ranging California sea lions and the first example of seroconversion and asymptomatic chronic carriage in a sea lion. Detection of asymptomatic chronic carriage of Leptospira in California sea lions, a species known to suffer significant disease and mortality from the same Leptospira strain, goes against widely-held notions regarding leptospirosis in accidental versus maintenance host species. Further, chronic carriage could provide a mechanism for persistent circulation of Leptospira in the California sea lion population, particularly if these animals shed infectious leptospires for months to years.

Alice A. Akers, Md. Anwarul Islam, Vincent Nijman
Habitat characterization of western hoolock gibbons Hoolock hoolock by examining home range microhabitat use
Primates, April 2013

Conserving a species depends on an understanding of its habitat requirements. Primatologists often characterize the habitat requirements of primates using macroscale population-based approaches relying on correlations between habitat attributes and population abundances between sites with varying levels of disturbance. This approach only works for species spread between several populations. The populations of some primates do not fulfill these criteria, forcing researchers to rely on individual-based (microscale) rather than population-based approaches for habitat characterization. We examined the reliability of using micro-scale habitat characterizations by studying the microhabitat preferences of a group of wild western hoolock gibbons (Hoolock hoolock) in order to compare our results to the habitat preferences of western hoolock gibbons identified during a macroscale study of populations across Bangladesh. We used stepwise discriminant analysis to differentiate between the areas of low, medium, and high usage based on microhabitat characteristics (tree species availability, altitude, canopy connection, distance from forest edge, and levels of human disturbance). The gibbons used interior forest habitat with low food tree availability most frequently for sleeping and socializing, and used edge habitat containing high food tree availability for medium periods for feeding. These results indicate that the gibbons prefer interior forest but are frequently forced to visit the forest edge to feed. Therefore, the optimal habitat would be interior forest away from human disturbance with high sleeping-tree and feeding-tree availability. These habitat preferences are consistent with the habitat attributes of Bangladesh’s largest remaining western hoolock gibbon populations, which live in areas containing low agricultural encroachment and high food-tree availability. Microhabitat use studies can be used to characterize the habitat requirements of a species, but should include multiple scales of analysis wherever possible.

Sharon Gursky-Doyen
Acoustic characterization of ultrasonic vocalizations by a nocturnal primate Tarsius syrichta
Primates, April 2013

This preliminary study characterizes the ultrasonic vocalizations produced by Philippine tarsiers, Tarsius syrichta. Data were collected at the Philippine Tarsier Foundation Sanctuary in Corella, Bohol, Philippines, from July through October 2010. Recordings were made on a Wildlife Acoustics Ultrasonic Song Meter 2 BAT from 29 wild, free-living adult resident T. syrichta (23 females and six males). A total of 10,309 USVs were recorded. These vocalizations fell into three main categories: chirps, twitters, and whistles. Chirps were the most frequent, followed by twitters and whistles. Whereas chirps and twitters were emitted by both male and female Philippine tarsiers, whistles were only emitted by adult males. Given that vocalizations reported in this study were exclusively recorded during capture and handling, it is very likely that these vocalizations function as distress calls. However, as the long whistle was only given by adult males who were captured at the same time as the female or the group’s infant, the function of the long whistle might be slightly different than the function of the other relatively lower-frequency USVs.

The genome of the platyfish, Xiphophorus maculatus, provides insights into evolutionary adaption and several complex traits. Schartl M, Walter, RB, Shen Y, Garcia T, Catchen J, Amores A, Braasch I, Chalopin D, Volff J-N, Lesch K-P, Bisazza A, Minx P, Hillier L, Wilson RK, Fuerstenber S, Boore J, Searle S, Postlethwait JH and Warren W. Nature Genetics. March 31, 2013. doi:10.1038/ng.2604
Several attributes intuitively considered to be typical mammalian features, such as complex behavior, live birth and malignant disease such as cancer, also appeared several times independently in lower vertebrates. The genetic mechanisms underlying the evolution of these elaborate traits are poorly understood. The platyfish, X. maculatus, offers a unique model to better understand the molecular biology of such traits. We report here the sequencing of the platyfish genome. Integrating genome assembly with extensive genetic maps identified an unexpected evolutionary stability of chromosomes in fish, in contrast to in mammals. Genes associated with viviparity show signatures of positive selection, identifying new putative functional domains and rare cases of parallel evolution. We also find that genes implicated in cognition show an unexpectedly high rate of duplicate gene retention after the teleost genome duplication event, suggesting a hypothesis for the evolution of the behavioral complexity in fish, which exceeds that found in amphibians and reptiles.

Zootaxa 3636 (2): 257–289 (4 Apr. 2013)
Taxonomic review of the tree frog genus Rhacophorus from the Western Ghats, India (Anura: Rhacophoridae), with description of ontogenetic colour changes and reproductive behaviour
S.D. BIJU, RACHUNLIU G. KAMEI, STEPHEN MAHONY, ASHISH THOMAS, SONALI GARG, GARGI SIRCAR & ROBIN SUYESH

A taxonomic revision of the Western Ghats species from the genus Rhacophorus is presented. Based on museum studies and new collections from localities spanning the known range of Western Ghats Rhacophorus, we review the four known species of this genus, their type specimens, current taxonomic status and their geographic distribution on the basis of morphological and molecular data. The holotypes of Rhacophorus calcadensis, R. lateralis and R. malabaricus are redescribed. The previously unidentified holotype of Rhacophorus malabaricus is herein fixed. Descriptions of ontogenetic colour change (OCC) in the Western Ghats Rhacophorus are provided and we conjecture the taxonomic utility of OCC.
Additionally we provide observations on nesting behaviour of each species, and report multiple male participation during amplexus, oviposition and foam nest construction in R. lateralis and R. malabaricus.

Zootaxa 3636 (2): 348–360 (4 Apr. 2013)
A new species of Pseudopaludicola (Anura, Leiuperidae) from western Piauí State, Northeast Brazil
IGOR JOVENTINO ROBERTO, DARIO CARDOZO & ROBSON W. ÁVILA

A new species of Pseudopaludicola from western Piauí State, Brazil, in the Cerrado domain is described. Pseudopaludicola parnaiba sp. nov. is a member of the genus Pseudopaludicola, on the basis of the presence of one hypertrophied antebrachial tubercle, posterolateral process of the hyoid outlined and epicoracoid cartilages slightly overlapped. The new species is characterized by an advertisement call composed of 6–46 non-pulsed notes per call and dominant frequency of 4794 ± 296 Hz, which supports an independent lineage. Additionally, the small size, body slender, toe tips knobbed with central groove, abdominal fold complete, tibio-tarsal articulation reaching the posterior border of the eye, and prepollex and prehallux composed of base and one element are character states that distinguish P. parnaiba from all the members of Pseudopaludicola. We provide its formal description with regard to external morphology, osteological characters and advertisement call.

Zootaxa 3636 (2): 361–373 (4 Apr. 2013)
Three new species of triplefin blennies of the genus Enneanectes (Teleostei, Tripterygiidae) from the tropical eastern Pacific with a key to Pacific species of Enneanectes
RICHARD H. ROSENBLATT, ELIZABETH C. MILLER & PHILIP A. HASTINGS

Three new species of the triplefin blenny genus Enneanectes found in the Pacific Ocean off southern Mexico are described. Two, Enneanectes glendae and Enneanectes macrops, are mainland species, while the third, Enneanectes exsul, is endemic to the Islas Revillagigedo. A key to the five species of Enneanectes known from the tropical eastern Pacific is provided.

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