Zootaxa 3637 (3): 308–324 (11 Apr. 2013)
Two new species of Squalius, S. adanaensis and S. seyhanensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), from the Seyhan River in Turkey
DAVUT TURAN, MAURICE KOTTELAT & ESRA DOĞAN
Two new species of Squalius are described from the Seyhan River drainage in Turkey: S. adanaensis from the lower part
of the drainage and S. seyhanensis from the upper part. Squalius adanaensis is distinguished from the other species of the genus in Anatolia, among other characters, by having the flank scales with a dark spot on each scale pocket but covered by the posterior margin of the previous scale, and very few melanophores along the posterior margin; 38–42 + 1–2 lateral line scales; and a maximum known size of 157 mm SL. Squalius seyhanensis is distinguished from other species of the genus in Anatolia, among other characters, by having the flank scales with a dark spot on each scale pocket, exposed, and densely-set melanophores along the posterior margin, forming a conspicuous reticulate pattern; 42–44 + 1–2 lateral line scales; and a maximum know size of 240 mm SL.
Rapid adaptation to mammalian sociality via sexually selected traits
Nelson AC, Colson KE, Harmon S, Potts WK
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013, (11 April 2013)
Laboratory studies show that the components of sexual selection (e.g. mate choice and intrasexual competition) can profoundly affect the development and fitness of offspring. Less is known, however, about the total effects of sexual selection on offspring in normal social conditions. Complex social networks, such as dominance hierarchies, regulate the opportunity for mating success, and are often missing from laboratory studies. Social selection is an extended view of sexual selection that incorporates competition during sexual and nonsexual interactions, and predicts complex evolutionary dynamics. Whether social selection improves or constrains offspring fitness is controversial.
To identify fitness consequences of social selection, wild-derived mice that had bred under laboratory conditions for eight generations were re-introduced to naturalistic competition in enclosures for three consecutive generations (promiscuous line). In parallel, a control lineage bred in cages under random mate assignment (monogamous line). A direct competition experiment using second-generation animals revealed that promiscuous line males had greater reproductive success than monogamous line males (particularly during extra-territorial matings), in spite of higher mortality and equivalent success in social dominance and sperm competition. There were no major female fitness effects (though promiscuous line females had fewer litters than monogamous line females). This result suggested that selection primarily acted upon a sexually attractive male phenotype in the promiscuous line, a hypothesis we confirmed in female odor and mating preference trials.
We present novel evidence for the strength of sexual selection under normal social conditions, and show rapid male adaptation driven largely by sexual trait expression, with tradeoffs in survivorship and female fecundity. Re-introducing wild-derived mice to competition quickly uncovers sexually selected phenotypes otherwise lost in normal colony breeding.
Inferring the evolutionary histories of divergences in Hylobates and Nomascus gibbons through multilocus sequence data
Chan Y, Roos C, Inoue-Murayama M, Inoue E, Shih C, Pei KJ, Vigilant L
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013, 13:82 (12 April 2013)
Gibbons (Hylobatidae) are the most diverse group of living apes. They exist as geographically-contiguous species which diverged more rapidly than did their close relatives, the great apes (Hominidae). Of the four extant gibbon genera, the evolutionary histories of two polyspecific genera, Hylobates and Nomascus, have been the particular focus of research but the DNA sequence data used was largely derived from the maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) locus.
To investigate the evolutionary relationships and divergence processes of gibbon species, particularly those of the Hylobates genus, we produced and analyzed a total of 11.5 kb DNA of sequence at 14 biparentally inherited autosomal loci. We find that on average gibbon genera have a high average sequence diversity but a lower degree of genetic differentiation as compared to great ape genera. Our multilocus species tree features H. pileatus in a basal position and a grouping of the four Sundaic island species (H. agilis, H. klossii, H. moloch and H. muelleri). We conducted pairwise comparisons based on an isolation-with-migration (IM) model and detect signals of asymmetric gene flow between H. lar and H. moloch, between H. agilis and H. muelleri, and between N. leucogenys and N. siki.
Our multilocus analyses provide inferences of gibbon evolutionary histories complementary to those based on single gene data. The results of IM analyses suggest that the divergence processes of gibbons may be accompanied by gene flow. Future studies using analyses of multi-population model with samples of known provenance for Hylobates and Nomascus species would expand the understanding of histories of gene flow during divergences for these two gibbon genera.
Jolle W. Jolles, Ljerka Ostojić, Nicola S. Clayton, Dominance, pair bonds and boldness determine social-foraging tactics in rooks, Corvus frugilegus, Animal Behaviour, Available online 12 April 2013, ISSN 0003-3472, 10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.03.013.
Socially foraging animals can search for resources themselves (produce) or exploit the discoveries made by others (scrounge). The extensive literature on producer–scrounger dynamics has mainly focused on scramble competition over readily accessible resources, thereby largely neglecting the variety of scrounging techniques individuals may use as well as the role of investment in food handling. Furthermore, although individual differences in boldness and social factors such as dominance have been described to influence foraging tactics, their potential interplay and effect in foraging contexts beyond the conventional producer–scrounger game remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between social-foraging tactic use and dominance, pair bonds and boldness in a foraging experiment focused on food handling and alternative scrounging tactics. We conducted a producer–scrounger experiment in a captive group of rooks in which individuals could produce by pulling up baited strings, or scrounge by retrieving fallen food items or joining a producer. There were three key findings: (1) dominant rooks adopted the producer tactic more often and more successfully than subordinates; (2) producing and scrounging by tolerance led to mixed benefits to paired birds; (3) bold birds scrounged by retrieving more often than shy birds. Importantly, individuals were highly consistent in their tactic use across conditions differing in food availability. Our study highlights the importance of taking both social factors and boldness (heterogeneity) into account when studying social-foraging dynamics and offers empirical data on food handling and alternative scrounging tactics that can be used to extend current models and experiments on social foraging.
Zootaxa 3637 (4): 401–411 (12 Apr. 2013)
Nannoperca pygmaea, a new species of pygmy perch (Teleostei: Percichthyidae) from Western Australia
DAVID L. MORGAN, STEPHEN J. BEATTY & MARK ADAMS
A new species of pygmy perch (Percichthyidae) from south-western Australia is described on the basis of 15 specimens
collected from the Hay River system. Nannoperca pygmaea sp. nov. differs from the sympatric congener N.vittata (Castelnau) by the absence of dark pigment on the ventral surface anterior to the anus, the possession of thin latero-ventral stripes, generally fewer dorsal rays and fewer anal rays, hind margin of scales on caudal peduncle without distinct pigment, and a more pronounced spot (ocellus) that is surrounded by a halo at the termination of the caudal peduncle. The new species is distinguished from congeners Nannoperca australis Günther, N. oxleyana Whitley and N. variegata Kuiter and Allen in possessing an exposed and serrated preorbital bone and jaws that may just reach to below the anterior margin of the eye, versus a smooth and hidden preorbital and the jaws reaching to at least below the pupil; and from the remaining congener, N. obscura (Klunzinger) in possessing a distinct haloed ocellus at base of caudal fin versus an indistinct barring, as well as a dark spot behind operculum, and the lack of dusky scale margins. It differs from the other sympatric pygmy perch found in the region, N. balstoni Regan, by the presence of an exposed rear edge of the preorbital (vs. hidden under skin), fewer transverse scale rows (13 vs. 15–16), small mouth (rarely reaching eye vs. reaching well beyond eye), ctenoid (vs. cycloid) body scales, generally fewer pectoral rays and smaller maximum size. Allozyme analyses unequivocally demonstrate that sympatric populations of N. pygmaea sp. nov. and N. vittata belong in different genetic lineages, display no genetic intermediates, and are diagnosable by fixed allozyme differences at 15 different loci. Due to its extremely restricted range, where it is known from only 0.06 km2
, N. pygmaea sp. nov. requires urgent legislative protection.
Zootaxa 3637 (5): 541–560 (15 Apr. 2013)
Taxonomic review of the Sebastes pachycephalus complex (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae)
YOSHIAKI KAI & TETSUJI NAKABO
A taxonomic review of the Sebastes pachycephalus complex established the existence of two valid species, S. pachycephalus and S. nudus. Similarities between them include: cranium armed dorsally with robust preocular, supraocular, postocular, and parietal spines; interorbital space concave; lower jaw lacking scales, shorter than upper jaw; thickened rays in ventral half of pectoral fin; dorsal fin usually with 13 spines and 12 soft-rays; pored lateral line scales 27–35 (usually 29–33). However, S. pachycephalus is distinguishable from the latter in having minute scales below the entire dorsal-fin spine base (vs. lacking minute scales below first to fifth or variously to the posteriormost spine in the latter), dark spots scattered on the dorsal, anal and caudal fins (vs. no distinct dark spots), and lacking distinct colored markings on the dorsum (vs. yellow or reddish-brown markings present). Although both species occur off the southern Korean Peninsula and in the Bohai and Yellow Seas, in Japanese waters, the former is distributed from northern Honshu Is. southward to southern Kyushu Is., whereas the latter extends from southern Hokkaido southward along the Pacific coast of Japan to Kanagawa, and along the Sea of Japan coast to northern Kyushu Is., including the Seto Inland Sea. Sebastes nigricaus, S. nigricans, and S. latus are confirmed as junior synonyms of S. pachycephalus, and S. chalcogrammus as junior synonym of S. nudus, based on the examination of type specimens.
Zootaxa 3637 (5): 569–591 (15 Apr. 2013)
Larval morphology of Dart-Poison Frogs (Anura: Dendrobatoidea: Aromobatidae and Dendrobatidae)
DAVID A. SÁNCHEZ
Tadpoles in the superfamily Dendrobatoidea (families Aromobatidae and Dendrobatidae), housed in zoological
collections or illustrated in publications, were studied. For the most part, tadpoles of species within the family
Aromobatidae, the subfamilies Colostethinae and Hyloxalinae (of the family Dendrobatidae), and those of the genus
Phyllobates, Dendrobatinae (Dendrobatidae) have slender anterior jaw sheaths with a medial notch and slender lateral
processes, triangular fleshy projections on the inner margin of the nostrils and digestive tube with constant diameter and color and its axis sinistrally directed, concealing the liver and other organs. These morphologies are different from the ones observed in tadpoles of species included in the Dendrobatinae (minus Phyllobates). Exceptions to these
morphological arrangements are noted, being the digestive system arrangement and the nostril ornamentation more plastic than the shape of the upper jaw sheath. Tadpoles of all species of the Dendrobatoidea have similar disposition of digestive organs in early stages, but differentiate in late stages of development. Classifying the upper jaw sheath into the two recognized states is possible from very early stages of development, but gut disposition and nostril ornamentation cannot be determined until late in development, making classification and taxonomic assignment of tadpoles based on these morphological features challenging.
Bernasconi, M., Patel, R., Nøttestad, L. and Brierley, A. S. (2013), Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) target strength measurements. Marine Mammal Science. doi: 10.1111/mms.12032
Active acoustic techniques can be used to detect whales. The ability to detect whales from a moving vessel or stationary buoy could reduce conflicts between hazardous human activities and whales, enabling implementation of mitigation procedures. In order to identify acoustic targets correctly as whales, knowledge of whale target strength (TS) is required. Active acoustic detections of fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) were made in the Norwegian Sea; acoustic data were collected using calibrated omnidirectional sonar, operating at a discrete frequency of 110 kHz. Three fin whales of similar size (estimated between 16 and 18 m total length) had an overall average TS for all insonified body aspects of −11.4 dB [95% CI −12.05, −10.8] at 110 kHz, with a total spread of nearly 14 dB. As expected, the received signals were stronger when the fin whales were insonified at broadside (−5.6 dB). Individual fin whale TS varied by approximately 12 dB, probably due to variation in lung volume with breathing, and to dynamic swimming kinematics. Our TS values are consistent with values reported previously for other large whales. All data together pave the way for development of automated acoustic whale detection protocols that could aid whale conservation.
Daily Survival Rate for Nests and Chicks of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) at Natural Nest Sites in South Carolina
Gillian L. Brooks, Felicia J. Sanders, Patrick D. Gerard, and Patrick G. R. Jodice
Waterbirds 2013 36 (1), 1-10
Although a species of conservation concern, little is known about the reproductive success of Least Terns (Sternula antillarum) throughout the southeastern USA where availability of natural beaches for nesting is limited. Daily survival rate (DSR) of nests and chicks was examined at four natural nesting sites in Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, South Carolina, 2009–2010. Measures of nest success (n = 257 nests) ranged from 0–93% among colony sites. The DSR of nests was primarily related to colony site, but year and estimates of predation risk also were related to DSR. Predation was the principal cause of identifiable nest loss, accounting for 47% of nest failures when the two years of data were pooled. The probability (± SE) of a chick surviving from hatching to fledging = 0.449 ± 0.01 (n = 92 chicks). DSR of chicks was negatively related to tide height and rainfall. Therefore, productivity of Least Terns is being lost during both the nesting and chick stage through a combination of biotic and abiotic factors that may prove difficult to fully mitigate or manage. Although natural nesting sites within Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge intermittently produce successful nests, the consistency of productivity over the long term is still unknown. Given that the long term availability of anthropogenic nest sites (e.g., rooftops, dredge-spoil islands) for Least Terns is questionable, further research is required both locally and throughout the region to assess the extent to which natural sites act as population sources or sinks.
Activity Patterns of Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula) and Great Egrets (Ardea alba): A Seasonal Comparison
John n. Brzorad and Alan D. Maccarone
Waterbirds 2013 36 (1), 11-19
Studies must be performed throughout the year to determine how the seasonal energy requirements of Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula) and Great Egrets (Ardea alba) change. Foraging behavior was quantified during the breeding season in Kansas and during the non-breeding season in Florida using energetic algorithms and scan sampling. Fifty-eight percent (n = 287) of breeding Snowy Egrets were observed ambulating while 51% (n = 271) of non-breeding Snowy Egrets were observed loafing. Standing foraging was the most commonly observed behavior among Great Egrets in both the breeding (54%, n = 91) and non-breeding (38%, n = 164) seasons. Behavior was dependent on season for both Snowy Egrets (χ2 = 200.1, P < 0.001) and Great Egrets (χ2 = 187.4, P < 0.001). During the breeding season, Snowy Egrets expended 0.13 ± 0.06 W (Watts) in rivers and 0.08 + 0.02 W at weirs. During the non-breeding season Snowy Egrets expended 0.06 ± 0.01 W. During the breeding season Great Egrets expended 0.11 + 0.02 W at both weirs and in rivers, and 0.09 ± 0.02 W during the non-breeding season (F2,46 = 7.86, P < 0.0012). Snowy and Great egrets appear to vary their caloric demand on aquatic systems over the annual cycle. However, the quantity of energy derived from an ecosystem should not be the only factor taken into consideration in determining the value of that ecosystem. Species Associations and Habitat Influence the Range-Wide Distribution of Breeding Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) on Western Hudson Bay
Matthew E. Reiter, David E. Andersen, Andrew H. Raedeke, and Dale D. Humburg
Waterbirds 2013 36 (1), 20-33
Inter- and intra-specific interactions are potentially important factors influencing the distribution of populations. Aerial survey data, collected during range-wide breeding population surveys for Eastern Prairie Population (EPP) Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior), 1987–2008, were evaluated to assess factors influencing their nesting distribution. Specifically, associations between nesting Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) and EPP Canada Geese were quantified; and changes in the spatial distribution of EPP Canada Geese were identified. Mixed-effects Poisson regression models of EPP Canada Goose nest counts were evaluated within a cross-validation framework. The total count of EPP Canada Goose nests varied moderately among years between 1987 and 2008 with no long-term trend; however, the total count of nesting Lesser Snow Geese generally increased. Three models containing factors related to previous EPP Canada Goose nest density (representing recruitment), distance to Hudson Bay (representing brood-habitat), nesting habitat type, and Lesser Snow Goose nest density (inter-specific associations) were the most accurate, improving prediction accuracy by 45% when compared to intercept-only models. EPP Canada Goose nest density varied by habitat type, was negatively associated with distance to coastal brood-rearing areas, and suggested density-dependent intra-specific effects on recruitment. However, a non-linear relationship between Lesser Snow and EPP Canada Goose nest density suggests that as nesting Lesser Snow Geese increase, EPP Canada Geese locally decline and subsequently the spatial distribution of EPP Canada Geese on western Hudson Bay has changed.
Relationships Among Breeding, Molting and Wintering Areas of Adult Female Barrow’s Goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica) in Eastern North America
Jean-Pierre L. Savard and Michel Robert
Waterbirds 2013 36 (1), 34-42
While the breeding and wintering ranges of the eastern population of Barrow’s Goldeneyes (Bucephala islandica) are generally described, molting locations and links among breeding, molting, and wintering areas are unclear, particularly for adult females. Incubating females from the same breeding location (n = 5) were equipped with satellite transmitters in June 2009. Four molting sites were identified over 2 years, spread broadly across Québec: an inlet in Ungava Bay 1,100 km from the breeding area, a lake 100 km south of Ungava Bay (880 km from breeding area), a lake near Hudson Bay (910 km from breeding area) and the mouth of the Rivière aux Outardes River in the St. Lawrence Estuary (165 km from breeding area). The distance between molting females averaged 755 km and two females molted in regions where males were known to molt. Of four birds with consecutive years of molt locations, three showed inter-annual fidelity to within 5 km of the previous molt sites and the fourth molted in sites that were 968 km apart. Females wintered in different locations within the St. Lawrence Estuary and moved widely throughout the area during winter. The south coast of the St. Lawrence Estuary was used during spring and fall staging, and the north coast during winter. There was not strong migratory connectivity among annual cycle stages in eastern adult female Barrow’s Goldeneyes, indicating that they should be considered a single management unit that occurs over a broad range throughout the year.
Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) Colony Initiation Attempts: Translocations and Decoys
Scott T. Walter, Michael R. Carloss, Thomas J. Hess, Giri athrey, and Paul L. Leberg
Waterbirds 2013 36 (1), 53-62
Within the context of a limited number of Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) breeding sites, promoting new colonies can mitigate localized threats to regional populations. To assess the efficacy of short-distance (5 km) translocations and use of decoys to establish new colonies, and thereby increase statewide population viability, research was conducted within the Isles Dernieres archipelago, Louisiana. Translocations of 323 Brown Pelican chicks to an un-colonized island were performed from 2007 to 2009, and from 2008 to 2010, 108 Brown Pelican decoys were deployed on a separate island void of nesting. From 2008 to 2010 band re-sighting surveys detected only one transplanted Brown Pelican chick that returned to the release site. Further, < 1 % of translocated individuals were observed throughout the archipelago, compared to 5% and 9% of banded individuals encountered that fledged from nearby islands. Low detection of translocated Brown Pelicans may be due to translocation stress that can result in disorientation and social disorganization, which may promote increased roaming. At sites with decoys, no loafing or nesting Brown Pelicans were observed. Further, behavioral surveys suggest there was no difference in interest of passing Brown Pelicans to decoys compared to paired control survey areas without decoys. Despite past successes of translocations and decoys for establishing new colonies of Brown Pelicans and other waterbird species, Brown Pelican conservation may be best promoted via restoration and protection of current colony sites. Local Movements and Wetland Connectivity at a Migratory Stopover of Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) in the Southeastern United States
Kelsey P. Obernuefemann, Jaime A. Collazo, and James E. Lyons
Waterbirds 2013 36 (1), 63-76
Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) use coastal wetlands in the southeastern United States during spring migration, some engaging in short-distance movements and brief refueling stops. Knowledge about the scale and factors that influence these movements could guide conservation planning, but often this information is not available. The influence of inter-wetland distance, prey biomass, amount of foraging habitat at depths of 0–4 cm, and density of migrating Semipalmated Sandpipers on their movement and stopover residency was investigated at the Tom Yawkey Wildlife Center in South Carolina in spring 2007. Tom Yawkey Wildlife Center contains three clusters of coastal wetlands separated by 2.6, 2.8 and 4.1 km. Probability of moving among wetland clusters and stopover residency were estimated using multi-state mark-recapture models and encounter histories from 502 marked Semipalmated Sandpipers. Sixty-four percent of Semipalmated Sandpipers remained within 2 km of site-of-capture for the duration of the study. Movement probabilities were negatively influenced by inter-cluster distance and Semipalmated Sandpiper density. Probability of moving between clusters 2.6–2.8 km apart was higher than clusters separated by 4.1 km. Semipalmated Sandpipers were more likely to depart the study area and resume migration after feeding in wetland clusters with abundant prey and accessible habitat. The interaction between prey and accessible habitat led to instances where Semipalmated Sandpipers were more likely to remain in wetlands with low prey levels, but high accessible habitat, or low accessible habitat, but high prey levels. Local movements among alternative foraging locations were facilitated when wetlands were < 2.8 km apart, highlighting the benefits of integrated management at small scales. Nest-Site Selection and Success of Red Shoveler (Anas platalea) in a Wetland of Central Chile
Claudio S. Quilodrán, Claire A. Pernollet, Mauricio A. Chávez, and Cristián F. Estades
Waterbirds 2013 36 (1), 102-107
Understanding the factors that determine waterfowl nesting site selection is an essential tool for wetland management, but, unfortunately, this information is lacking for most species in the Southern Hemisphere. During the 2007 breeding season, reproductive biology and nesting habitat selection of the Red Shoveler (Anas platalea) were investigated in a wetland of Central Chile. Red Shoveler nests were clumped, primarily in scrubby meadows, containing an average of 8.56 ± 1 eggs (n = 2 3). Nesting microhabitat was characterized by well-covered ground and an intermediate height of the rich herbaceous layer close to the water. Hatching success was 80 ± 20% and was negatively associated with the number of cattle dung piles and the proportion of dry vegetation, but positively explained by herbaceous height and the distance to watercourse. suggest that the risk of predation, the access to food, and cattle disturbance would affect the selection of breeding sites and nest success of Red Shoveler. Management should focus on increasing diversity the herbaceous layer, ensuring easy access to water sources, and decreasing livestock pressure during the nesting period.
Beatrice Bonati, Davide Csermely, Valeria Anna Sovrano, Advantages in exploring a new environment with the left eye in lizards, Behavioural Processes, Available online 13 April 2013, ISSN 0376-6357, 10.1016/j.beproc.2013.04.002.
Lizards (Podarcis muralis) preferentially use the left eye during spatial exploration in a binocular condition. Here we allowed 44 adult wild lizards to explore an unknown maze for 20 minutes under a temporary monocular condition whilst recording their movements, particularly the direction of turns made while walking within the maze. Lizards with a patch on their right eye, i.e. using their left eye to monitor the environment, moved faster than lizards with a patch on their left eye when turning both leftward and rightward in a T-cross. Hence, right eye-patched lizards were faster than left eye-patched lizards also in turning right, although their right eye was covered. Thus, lizards that could use the left eye/right hemisphere to attend spatial cues appeared to have more control and to be more prompt in exploring the maze. In addition, female lizards with their left eye covered stopped very frequently when they reached crosses, showing a high level of indecision. Results confirm that Podarcis muralis lizards using their left eye only in exploring a new environment react faster and more efficiently than those using the right eye only in exploration. Hence lateralization of spatial stimuli mediated by the left eye/right hemisphere could provide an advantage to this species.