Abstract View

Zootaxa 3642 (1): 1–105 (30 Apr. 2013)
Phylogenetic systematics of the family Sillaginidae (Percomorpha: order Perciformes)

The phylogenetic relationships of the family Sillaginidae are inferred based on morphological characters. The Sillaginidae is revealed as being a monophyletic group supported by 16 synapomorphies such as shortened segments on the first soft ray of pelvic fin and the adductor mandibulae section A2 covering section A1 laterally. The characters recognized in 24 transformation series were used for the phylogenetic analysis to reconstruct the interrelationships of the family. Twelve equally most parsimonious trees were obtained in the analysis. A strict consensus tree from the 12 trees was adopted as representing the phylogenetic relationships of the family Sillaginidae. Although reversals and character changes to other derived conditions are recognized, it is inferred that five characters additionally support the monophyly of the Sillaginidae.
The family Sillaginidae is redefined based on the synapomorphies supporting its monophyly for the first time. In the new classification proposed, the Sillaginidae comprises the following five genera: Sillago, Sillaginopsis, Sillaginodes, Sillaginopodys, and Sillaginops gen. nov. A key to identification of the genera of Sillaginidae is provided. The family Sillaginidae contains two groups having different evolutionary trends in the reconstructed phylogeny of the family. The first group, including Sillaginopsis, Sillaginodes, Sillaginopodys, and Sillaginops gen. nov., has a trend towards reducing the swimbladder; and the second group, including only Sillago, has a trend towards further refining the swimbladder.

Osvel Hinojosa-Huerta, Eduardo Soto-Montoya, Martha Gómez-Sapiens, Alejandra Calvo-Fonseca, Ricardo Guzmán-Olachea, Juan Butrón-Méndez, José Juan Butrón-Rodríguez, Martha Román-Rodríguez, The Birds of the Ciénega de Santa Clara, a wetland of international importance within the Colorado River Delta, Ecological Engineering, Available online 29 April 2013, ISSN 0925-8574, 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2013.03.005.
The Ciénega de Santa Clara is the largest marsh in the Sonoran Desert and the most important wetland in the Colorado River delta. We present the information on the state of the birds in the Ciénega and a checklist of the species that have been detected at the site. We also summarize the ornithological work that has been conducted and compiled recommendations for bird conservation. A total of 261 species of birds have been detected in the Ciénega de Santa Clara, representing 71% of the species known to the Colorado River delta. The birds of the Ciénega include 189 migratory species (70.4%), 49 year-round residents (18.7%), and 28 breeding visitors (10.7%). Twenty-seven species are federally protected in Mexico, four of them as Endangered, eight as Threatened, and 15 under Special Protection. The Ciénega provides critical habitat for migratory waterbirds, with maximum counts of 280,000 shorebirds in the southern mudflats, as well as for breeding marsh birds, including Yuma Clapper Rails, Virginia Rails and California Black Rails, with maximum estimates of 8600, 7150 and 400 individuals respectively. Other species of concern that occur regularly in the Ciénega include Least Bittern, Snowy Plover, Least Tern, and Large-billed Savannah Sparrow. This wetland also provides important stopover habitat for 81 species of Neotropical migratory landbirds during their northbound spring migration, particularly for Wilson’s Warbler, Swainson’s Thrush, Yellow Warbler, Pacific-slope Flycatcher, and Willow Flycatcher. Binational cooperation is essential to protect the Ciénega in the long-term, especially in terms of dedicating the necessary water for its maintenance. Active management actions are also becoming an important part of habitat conservation, including land protection mechanisms, sediment removal, and fire management.

Evans, Kate; Moore, Randall J.; Harris, Stephen. 2013. „The Release of a Captive-Raised Female African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.“ Animals 3, no. 2: 370-385
Wild female elephants live in close-knit matrilineal groups and housing captive elephants in artificial social groupings can cause significant welfare issues for individuals not accepted by other group members. We document the release of a captive-raised female elephant used in the safari industry because of welfare and management problems. She was fitted with a satellite collar, and spatial and behavioural data were collected over a 17-month period to quantify her interactions with the wild population. She was then monitored infrequently for a further five-and-a-half years. We observed few signs of aggression towards her from the wild elephants with which she socialized. She used an area of comparable size to wild female elephants, and this continued to increase as she explored new areas. Although she did not fully integrate into a wild herd, she had three calves of her own, and formed a social unit with another female and her calf that were later released from the same captive herd. We recommend that release to the wild be considered as a management option for other captive female elephants.

Coyner, B.S., Braun, J.K., Mares, M.A., Van Den Bussche, R.A. (2013). Taxonomic validity of species groups in the genus Akodon (Rodentia, Cricetidae). —Zoologica Scripta, 00, 000–000.
In an effort to evaluate the four Akodon species groups, phylogenetic relationships among individuals of the genus Akodon, selected from throughout South America, were examined using cytochrome b and a concatenated data set consisting of data from cytochrome b, exon 6 of the dentin matrix protein 1 and the nuclear intron thyrotropin. Both the cytochrome b data set and the combined data set were analysed under maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian criteria. Like previous studies, a monophyletic Akodon clade was recovered. Monophyly of the boliviensis and cursor groups was supported, and the two form a strongly supported sister relationship. Akodon azarae is basal to and forms a monophyletic group with the boliviensis + cursor clade, resolving the placement of A. azarae but leaving it unassignable to a current Akodon species group. The aerosus and varius groups are paraphyletic as four members of the varius group (A. glaucinus, A. simulator, A. tartareus and A. varius) fall within the aerosus group. Akodon lindberghi is formally placed in the cursor group. Akodon caenosus is recognized as a species distinct of A. lutescens, A. orientalis is recognized as a species distinct of A. orophilus, and A. aerosus, A. baliolus and A. surdus are recognized as three separate species. Based upon chronophylogenetic analysis, the initial divergence within Akodon likely began during the late Pliocene and ancestors of the four extant species groups (aerosus, boliviensis, cursor and dolores) appeared around the Pleistocene–Pliocene boundary or shortly thereafter.

Alessandro Andreotti, Fabrizio Borghesi
Embedded lead shot in European starlings Sturnus vulgaris: an underestimated hazard for humans and birds of prey
European Journal of Wildlife Research, April 2013

The poisoning of wild animals by lead (Pb) ammunition fired by hunters has been known for many decades, especially in the case of waterbirds. More recently, it has been demonstrated that raptors are also exposed to the risk of plumbism when feeding on unretrieved quarry that was wounded or killed by hunters. Further studies reveal that even humans can be subject to a significant Pb dose while consuming game animals killed by traditional ammunition. Given the relevance of this issue, several pieces of research have been carried out to assess frequency, dimension, and the number of Pb fragments embedded in the carcasses of ungulates, partridges, ducks, and other birds to evaluate the risk related to the consumption of game meat. In spite of their great importance as quarry species across southern Europe, until now, no data have been available on small passerines. To assess the quantity and type of Pb embedded in songbirds, we x-rayed 196 starlings shot in Italy and found Pb pellets and/or visible fragments in 118 carcasses (60.2 %). We counted 128 shotgun pellets in 85 carcasses. In 28 birds, we detected both whole pellets and lead fragments; in 33, we found only small fragments. By excising and weighing a sample of 20 shotgun pellets (diameter 1.35–1.99 mm), we calculated a Pb load of 3.75 g in the whole sample of 196 starlings, corresponding to an average of 27.32 mg/100 g of body weight. This is a conservative estimation, because fragments were not considered. Compared to game birds of a larger size, the starlings in our study had a lower amount of embedded Pb, but the shot pellets and fragments embedded in their tissues were abundant and tiny. Given the results of previous studies, the quantity and level of fragmentation suggest that the risk of Pb poisoning cannot be ruled out for humans and birds of prey consuming the meat from songbirds killed with traditional ammunition.

Jensen, A.-L. M., Delfour, F. and Carter, T. (2013), Anticipatory Behavior in Captive Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus): A Preliminary Study. Zoo Biol.. doi: 10.1002/zoo.21077

This study examined whether a group of captive dolphins displayed anticipatory behaviors before shows. In general, anticipation occurs when an event is being predicted. Anticipatory behavior is defined by Spruijt et al. as “responses elicited by rewarding stimuli that lead to and facilitate consummatory behavior (Spruijt et al., 2001, Appl Anim Behav Sci 72: 145–171).” Using behavioral recording techniques, the behaviors, breathing rates, space use, and activity levels of all dolphins was recorded both before and after shows. Analysis compared pre- and post-show data in addition to looking at gradual changes in behavior prior to show sessions. Significant changes were found in the behavior and space use prior to sessions with the dolphins decreasing their activity levels, spending more time at the surface and moving towards the starting point of a session before it took place. There was a significant increase in the vigilant behavior before sessions, indicating that the dolphins were becoming more alert towards their trainers and other activities around the pool. This result mirrors previous research with other captive species; as feeding time was approaching, the animals seemed to “wait” and look for the handlers. Any behavioral change that may be regarded as anticipatory behavior was not evidently abnormal or stereotypic in nature, and breathing rates remained stable indicating that the animals do not perceive the shows as stressful or as an aversive experience. Additionally, behavior and level of activity remained stable following the sessions.

Cooper, S. M., Sieckenius, S. S. and Silva, A. L. (2013), Dentine method: Aging white-tailed deer by tooth measurements. Wildlife Society Bulletin. doi: 10.1002/wsb.275
The ability to age white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is essential for population management, but field-aging techniques based on visual assessment of tooth-wear patterns lack accuracy. We used regression analysis to relate tooth measurements to age of 54 known-age wild South Texas (USA) male deer captured from 2002 to 2012. Using 9 animals/age class, from 2.5 to 7.5 years old, we measured cusp height and widths of each layer of enamel or dentine within each cusp of the third premolar (P3) on both left and right sides of the lower jaws. We found a linear relationship between age and dentine width (D), particularly within the anterior buccal cusp of P3 on the right jaw (r2 = 0.727). The regression equation, Age = 1.819 + (1.755 × D) provided a predictive aging model. We validated this model with 140 jaws from different known-age male deer within the same age range and from the same locations. Placement within the correct year class was achieved for 48% of male deer, and 90% were classified within 1 year of their actual age. This accuracy was greater than that achieved by 27 Wildlife Society members who correctly aged 28% of a subsample of the same jaws by tooth-wear patterns. Thus, using tooth measurements to age deer provided more accurate age estimation than visual tooth-wear methods. The dentine method is particularly useful for deer ≥3.5 years old. This technique may need to be calibrated with measurements from local known-aged deer before being used to age animals from regions beyond South Texas.

Law, P. R., Jewell, Z. and Alibhai, S. (2013), Using Shape and Size to Quantify Variation in Footprints for Individual Identification: Case Study With White Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum). Wildlife Society Bulletin. doi: 10.1002/wsb.250

For those vertebrate species that create sufficiently complex footprints, identifying individuals from their footprints promises to be a noninvasive technique of great potential for wildlife studies and conservation, but with statistical challenges. Various approaches to employing footprints for identification appear in the literature, but doubt often remains as to the information contained in the footprints and therefore of the reliability of the procedures. For footprints represented by landmarks, we propose using pre-assigned measures of shape and size of configurations of landmarks to quantify the variation in footprints amongst individuals relative to the variation in each individual’s footprints. Our method provides a relatively simple means of assessing when footprints (represented by landmarks) from individuals of a population will be useful for identifying individuals, independent of any particular identification algorithm, and is also a tool for exploring footprint landmark data to aid development of discrimination routines. We illustrate the method using footprints collected from a population of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) at Otjiwa Game Ranch, Namibia, during late 1999.

Brennan, A., Cross, P. C., Ausband, D. E., Barbknecht, A. and Creel, S. (2013), Testing Automated Howling Devices in a Wintertime Wolf Survey. Wildlife Society Bulletin. doi: 10.1002/wsb.269
Previous tests of the automated acoustic device, referred to as a howlbox, effectively identified the presence of wolves (Canis lupus) during the summer, near rendezvous sites. Howlboxes are self-contained devices that broadcast simulated wolf howls and record howls made in response, and are of interest in remote locations to document the presence of dispersing wolves and new wolf packs. It is unclear whether the howlbox can also detect wolves during the winter when wolves are more mobile. We tested the howlbox’s ability to detect wolves in an area with approximately 3 wolves/100 km2 and overlapping pack territories in western Wyoming, USA, during January–May 2011. Howlboxes detected wolves in only 1.1% (n = 185, 95% CI = 0.1–3.8%) of the surveys, but we recorded wolf tracks within 50 m of howlboxes 14.8% (n = 54, 95% CI = 6.6–27.1%) of the time. Though howlboxes seldom recorded wolf howls, our findings suggest the possibility that howlboxes may attract wolves in areas with overlapping pack territories during the winter.

Adam J. Munn, Peta Skeers, Lauren Kalkman, Steve R. McLeod, Terence J. Dawson, Water use and feeding patterns of the marsupial western grey kangaroo (Macropus fuliginosus melanops) grazing at the edge of its range in arid Australia, as compared with the dominant local livestock, the Merino sheep (Ovis aries), Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde, Available online 1 May 2013, ISSN 1616-5047, 10.1016/j.mambio.2013.03.003
Western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus melanops) are large, foregut fermenting herbivores common to Australia’s southern woodlands and shrublands, but they extend well into semiarid habitats at the north-eastern edge of their range. At this range boundary, western grey kangaroos occupy open chenopod (saltbush) shrubland, along with Australia’s other large native kangaroos, as well as with extensive pastoral stock, primarily the wool-breed merino sheep. In this habitat, within a large naturally vegetated enclosure (16ha), western grey kangaroos grazing sympatrically with merino sheep spent much of the day resting under shade trees, and fed mainly during the evening and early morning, mainly on grasses and flat-leaved chenopods. On this diet, western grey kangaroos had water turnovers similar to those of red kangaroos, at 1.1Ld−1. Sheep, however, used 7.7L of water each day. Thus, although the sheep were twice the average body mass of kangaroos, the sheep used more than seven times as much water. This level of water use by sheep was almost half that previously reported for sheep at the same site feeding mainly on salt-laden chenopods (ca. 12Ld−1), but was consistent with other studies showing lower water usage by sheep feeding on trees and low-salt shrubs; foregut (rumen) contents of our sheep comprised 35% tree browse. Overall, our data do not support suggestions that western grey kangaroos are limited mainly by water at this arid range-boundary. Notably, the western grey kangaroos’ feeding behaviours were consistent with those of other arid-zone kangaroos, highlighting distinctive differences in the ecological physiology of the foregut fermenting kangaroos and the ruminant sheep.

Angela Schwarm, Sylvia Ortmann, Julia Fritz, Edmund Flach, Wolfram Rietschel, Marcus Clauss, No distinct stratification of ingesta particles and no distinct moisture gradient in the fore-stomach of non-ruminants: The wallaby, peccary, hippopotamus, and sloth, Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde, Available online 1 May 2013, ISSN 1616-5047, 10.1016/j.mambio.2013.04.001.
Herbivores that digest plant material in the fore-stomach can be divided in ruminants and non-ruminants. This study describes the distribution of feed particles (and inorganic material) and dry matter (DM) in the digestive tract of non-ruminant foregut fermenters. Results from passage trials led us to hypothesize that specific particle-sorting mechanisms, as observed in ruminants, are unlikely in non-ruminants. Therefore, no systematic particle size distribution effects (indicative of a sorting mechanism) should be evident in the fore-stomachs of these animals, but differences in fluid and particle retention suggest that differences in fluid concentration (measured as DM) could occur in the foregut of macropods and hippos. The gut content of eleven Bennett’s wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus), six collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu), three pygmy hippos (Hexaprotodon liberiensis), two common hippos (Hippopotamus amphibius) and one two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) were analyzed with an emphasis on the fore-stomach. The ventral and dorsal regions in sacciform compartments, and peripheral and central regions in tubular compartments, were examined. Results were not uniform across the species studied. A potential sedimentation mechanism was observed firstly by the accumulation of sand in the fore-stomach of the peccary and sloth, and secondly by the lower DM content in peripheral versus central and ventral versus dorsal regions of the fore-stomach of the wallabies and common hippos, respectively. However, pair-comparisons for different gut regions of wallabies and peccaries yielded no differences in mean particle size between fore-stomach regions. To conclude, some digesta fractionation does occur in the fore-stomach of the studied groups of non-ruminants, but not in a uniform manner, which in turn is in accordance with morphological dissimilarities of their respective foregut structures. The absence of systematic fractionation effects in non-ruminant foregut fermenters emphasizes the innovative character of the sorting mechanism in ruminants.

Luke A. Schneider, Paul H. Delfabbro, Nicholas R. Burns, Temperament and lateralization in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, Volume 8, Issue 3, May–June 2013, Pages 124-134, ISSN 1558-7878, 10.1016/j.jveb.2012.06.004.
The authors investigated the relationship between paw preference (the paw with which dogs prefer to hold a food object) and temperament in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). Hypotheses were based on the Valence-Specific Hypothesis, which broadly states that negative emotions are associated with the right hemisphere, and positive emotions are associated with the left hemisphere. To assess each dog’s temperament, an owner-rated temperament questionnaire was administered to the owners of 73 pet dogs. The same dogs were tested for paw preference using a Kong (KONG Company, Golden, CO) stuffed with food and were subsequently classified as left-pawed, right-pawed, or ambilateral. A laterality index (LI) value was also calculated for each dog in the study to provide an indication of the strength and direction of its paw preference. Positive LI values reflected a preference for the right paw, whereas negative LI values reflected a preference for the left paw. The LI ranged from −100 to +100, with numbers closer to either extreme reflecting a stronger paw preference and a score of 0 indicating no preference. The absolute value of LI reflects the strength, but not direction, of paw preference and was included in some analyses.
We found no evidence to support a relationship between paw preference and temperament, with the exception that lateralized dogs scored marginally higher than ambilateral dogs on a measure of stranger-directed aggression. We suggest that the temperament assessment used in this study may not be sensitive enough to detect differences between individuals based on their lateralization. Temperament factors were also compared with a number of “demographic” variables (e.g., age, sex, whether the dog was a purebred or a crossbreed, and the frequency of exercise) to determine the effect of these variables on temperament outcomes.

Lasse Asmyhr, Tomas Willebrand, Maria Hörnell-Willebrand
European Journal of Wildlife Research, May 2013
The optimal foraging theory, crowding and Swedish grouse hunters

Hunters that have options to hunt in different areas should evaluate their previous hunting success when they decide where to hunt. Following optimal foraging theory for non-human predators, we investigated if hunting success and density of other hunters on the hunting area will affect the probability of return to the same area, and if such behavioural changes will result in a higher hunting success compared to hunters that change to a new area. For this purpose, we used detailed information about willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus) hunters on state-owned land in Sweden. We found support for the optimal foraging theory application on grouse hunters’ behavioural changes according to hunting success. The return rate increased with increasing hunting success, and hunters that returned to the same area also increased their success compared to hunters that changed to a new area. Only one third of the hunters returned to the same area the subsequent year. We also found a negative effect of density of hunters in an area on hunters’ return rates and their hunting success, suggesting crowding among Swedish grouse hunters.

K. Green, N. E. Davis, W. A. Robinson, J. McAuliffe, R. B. Good
European Journal of Wildlife Research, May 2013
Diet selection by European hares (Lepus europaeus) in the alpine zone of the Snowy Mountains, Australia

European hares (Lepus europaeus) are grazers and open grassland specialists that are replaced in mountain areas of their natural range in the northern hemisphere by browsing/intermediate feeding mountain hares (Lepus timidus), but in their introduced range in the southern hemisphere, occupy the alpine zone. We used micro-histological identification of plant fragments and germination of seeds in faecal pellets of L. europaeus from the Snowy Mountains, Australia, to determine diet. We asked whether diet shifted and/or diet breadth expanded in response to seasonally reduced food availability, particularly during winter. If so, did the constraints of food availability in the alpine zone lead to the diet mirroring that of L. timidus in its native alpine habitat. The diet of L. europaeus was dominated by grasses, herbs and shrubs. The main diet items in summer were grasses (70 %) and herbs (28 %). Grasses declined in the diet between summer and autumn when herbs increased to co-dominance, with a further change after establishment of the winter snowpack to a greater preponderance of shrubs (43 % compared with a maximum of 3 % in snow-free months). L. europaeus selected a wider range of plants in winter (59 species compared with 39 in summer) and diet was significantly more variable in winter than in autumn or summer (and in autumn than summer). We concluded that the persistence of L. europaeus in alpine areas of the southern hemisphere is testament to their ability to expand their dietary breadth to occupy mountain climatic zones normally occupied by L. timidus.

Lamb, T., Bauer, A.M. (2013). To be or not to be Angolosaurus: a multilocus perspective on the phylogenetic position of Africa’s desert plated lizard (Gerrhosauridae). —Zoologica Scripta, 00, 000–000.
The Desert Plated Lizard is a Namib sand dune specialist whose distinct morphological habitus has elicited differing taxonomic interpretations. Originally described as Gerrhosaurus skoogi, the species was later placed in a monotypic genus, Angolosaurus, to emphasize its endemic status and psammophilous condition. Distinct views exist regarding its phylogenetic position as well. General morphological and cranial osteological analyses, respectively, identify the species as either the sister taxon to the remaining African gerrhosaurids or sister taxon to all (African + Madagascan) gerrhosaurids. Alternatively, a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny places the species within the genus Gerrhosaurus. Given these conflicting topologies, we revisit the systematic status of the Desert Plated Lizard, presenting here the first multilocus phylogeny for the African gerrhosaurids. Bayesian inference and maximum-likelihood analyses depict the Desert Plated Lizard as being nested within a clade containing four species of Gerrhosaurus. This strongly supported clade, recovered in mitochondrial, nuclear and combined gene analyses, corroborates the previous mitochondrial phylogeny. Alternative topologies – in which the species was constrained to correspond to morphological phylogenetic placements – differ significantly from our multilocus topology. Thus, we reiterate and conclude that Angolosaurus is a junior synonym of Gerrhosaurus.

Giugliano, L. G., Nogueira, C., Valdujo, P. H., Collevatti, R. G., Colli, G. R. (2013). Cryptic diversity in South American Teiinae (Squamata, Teiidae) lizards. ––Zoologica Scripta, 00, 000–000.
Based on phylogenetic and molecular dating analyses of several species of Cnemidophorus and Ameiva, representing major groups of species of these two genera, we uncover a previously unrecognized Ameiva lineage, which includes described Cnemidophorus parecis from south-western Amazonia. We discuss the diagnosis of Ameiva and Cnemidophorus and the implications of the new taxonomic rearrangement of genera from Teiidae for the monophyly of Ameiva. Based on the conclusion of our analyses, we provide description of a new species named Ameiva jacuba from the central Brazilian Cerrado and a detailed diagnosis for the relocation of C. parecis to Ameiva. We do not adopt here recent taxonomic changes proposed for Teiidae and provide a discussion about them. Finally, based on molecular dating and the distribution of living species, we propose an evolutionary scenario for the origins of South American cis-Andean Ameiva lineages, associated with the topographic subdivision of the Cerrado region during Miocene marine introgressions.

Status of the Asiatic black bear Ursus thibetanus in the southeastern region of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal
Rabindra Bista, Achyut Aryal
Zoology and Ecology
Vol. 23, Iss. 1, 2013

The Asiatic black bear Ursus thibetanus is an omnivore that occurs throughout the mid-hill region of Nepal. Globally, it is listed as vulnerable; in southern Asia it is considered threatened and in Nepal it is identified as endangered. This study was conducted to explore its habitat use and distribution in the southeast (Bhujung sector) of the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA). Most of black bear signs in the study area were recorded at the elevation ranging from 1900 to 3100 m. The black bear was mainly recorded in the forest habitat with 20–30° slope and 50–75% crown cover. A total of 86 bear signs were recorded in the study area and the density of bear signs was estimated at 0.45 signs/km2. The bear was distributed in Schima wallichi, Quercus spp. forest with Arundinaria spp. and Dendrocalamus spp. The study recorded 1.3 hectares crops damaged/raided by black bears. Black bear habitats were found to be under the pressure of different human activities such as forest product collection, grazing and poaching. The current study recommends extending further research on the species throughout the ACA region, implementing mitigation measures and conducting awareness raising activities to reduce the human-bear conflict. It is also recommended that a participatory action plan for the black bear conservation at a local level should be developed and implemented.

New record of the longhorn cowfish Lactoria cornuta (Linnaeus 1758) from inshore waters of the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh
Md Shahzad Kuli Khan, Mohammad Abdul Momin Siddique, Mohammed Ashraful Haque
Zoology and Ecology
Vol. 23, Iss. 1, 2013

A single specimen of the longhorn cowfish, Lactoria cornuta (Linnaeus 1758), was recorded for the first time from inshore waters near St. Martin’s Island, Bangladesh. It is the first record of the longhorn cowfish from the Bay of Bengal and the fourth record of species belonging to the family Ostraciidae from the territory of Bangladesh.

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