Zootaxa 3652 (1): 163–178 (15 May 2013)
A new species of small tree frog, genus Dendropsophus (Anura: Hylidae) from the eastern Amazon lowlands of Ecuador
H. MAURICIO ORTEGA-ANDRADE & SANTIAGO R. RON
We describe a new species of the hylid frog genus Dendropsophus from Amazonian Ecuador. The new species, Dendropsophus
shiwiarum sp. nov., appears to be part of the D. microcephalus species group. Dendropsophus shiwiarum differs from its congeners by a combination of: (1) tympanic membrane non-differentiated and annulus evident only ventrally, (2) disc of Finger III and Toe IV with pointed tip, (3) dorsal surfaces of digital discs with a conical tubercle as result of projection of distal phalanx, and (4) small size (SVL < 19 mm). The new species is morphologically most similar to Dendropsophus riveroi. Examination of the type material of the latter suggests that some Ecuadorian populations reported as
D. riveroi were misidentified and in fact belong to D. shiwiarum sp. nov.
Zootaxa 3652 (1): 193–200 (15 May 2013)
A new yellow species of glassfrog (Centrolenidae: Nymphargus) from the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes
JUAN M. GUAYASAMIN
I describe a new glassfrog from the cloud forest of the Andes of southwestern Ecuador (Plan de Milagro–Gualaceo road;
3.0077°S, 78.53318°W), at elevations between 2140–2160 m. The new species is distinguished mostly by having a pale
yellow dorsal coloration instead of the green that characterizes most centrolenids. Morphological traits (i.e., reduced webbing
between Fingers III and IV and lack of humeral spines) support the placement of the new species in the genus Nymphargus.
Mariana Stancheva Panayotova-Pencheva, Parasites in Captive Animals: A Review of Studies in Some European Zoos, Der Zoologische Garten, Available online 14 May 2013, ISSN 0044-5169, 10.1016/j.zoolgart.2013.04.005.
There are a number of specific characteristics in the system parasites–zoos and lots of studies in this connection have been carried out. In the present work a literature review of the parasitological investigations performed in some European zoos is presented. The summing-up and analyses of the literature data gave us grounds for drawing the following conclusions: Helminths represent the most frequently reported parasites in the animals inhabiting Europe’s zoos. According to the frequency of the reports the most widely-spread among the helminths are the nematodes, followed by the cestodes and trematodes. The nematodes are most often represented by those of the Ascaridida order followed by Strongylida, Enoplida (Trichuridae, Capillariidae), Oxyurida and Rhabditida. Protozoa rank second after the nematodes according to the frequency of reports. The ones affecting the gastrointestinal tract and developing without intermediary hosts are most often established (Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Eimeria). Often parasites causing zoonoses are recorded in the zoo animals. Most often these are primates with the nematodes from the genera Trichuris, Ascaris, Strongyloides and Enterobius being the most common zoonoses agents.
Gérald Umhang, Céline Richomme, Jean-Marc Boucher, Gérald Guedon, Franck Boué, Nutrias and muskrats as bioindicators for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis in new endemic areas, Veterinary Parasitology, Available online 14 May 2013, ISSN 0304-4017, 10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.05.003.
Nutrias (Myocastor coypus) and muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) are large invasive semi-aquatic or aquatic rodents, naturalized throughout Europe. They are regarded as pests, and can be infected with several pathogens and parasites transmissible to wildlife, livestock, pets and humans. As a rule, in Europe the life cycle of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis involves red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) as main definitive hosts and common voles as intermediate hosts. The suitability of nutrias and muskrats as intermediate hosts has already been described. Here, we investigate the occurrence of E. multilocularis in the context of a wide-scale health study on nutrias and muskrats in 12 “départements” in the western part of France. During the sampling period, a total of 817 aquatic rodents were trapped in five rivers or ponds in each «département». During post-mortem examinations, lesions were observed on the livers of 21 nutrias and 104 muskrats, and analysed by PCR and sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 gene for specific identification. Several non-zoonotic parasites were identified: Taenia taeniaformis, T. mustelae, T. polyacantha and T. martis. Four livers from 2 nutrias and 2 muskrats exhibited E. multilocularis infection. One of the muskrats was infected with fertile E. multilocularis lesions. The 4 animals came from 3 French «départements» where foxes have recently been found to be infected by E. multilocularis. These results lead us to consider nutrias and muskrats as relevant bioindicators for the presence of E. multilocularis in this environment. Our results also suggest that, when listed as pests and targeted by large trapping campaigns, nutrias and muskrats could be used to detect the presence of E. multilocularis in areas considered free of this parasite.
Ryuzaburo Nakata, Satoshi Eifuku, Ryoi Tamura
Effects of tilted orientations and face-like configurations on visual search asymmetry in macaques
Animal Cognition, May 2013
Visual search asymmetry has been used as an important tool for exploring cognitive mechanisms in humans. Here, we examined visual search asymmetry in two macaques toward two types of stimulus: the orientation of line stimuli and face-like stimuli. In the experiment, the monkeys were required to detect an odd target among numerous uniform distracters. The monkeys detected a tilted-lines target among horizontal- or vertical-lined distracters significantly faster than a horizontal- or vertical-lined target among tilted-lined distracters, regardless of the display size. However, unlike the situation in which inverted-face stimuli were introduced as distracters, this effect was diminished if upright-face stimuli were used as distracters. Additionally, monkeys detected an upright-face target among inverted-face distracters significantly faster than an inverted-face target among upright-face distracters, regardless of the display size. These results demonstrate that macaques can search a target efficiently to detect both tilted lines among non-tilted lines and upright faces among inverted faces. This clarifies that there are several types of visual search asymmetry in macaques.
A. M. Overduin-de Vries, B. M. Spruijt, E. H. M. Sterck
Long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) understand what conspecifics can see in a competitive situation
Animal Cognition, May 2013
Visual perspective taking (VPT), an understanding of what others can see, is a prerequisite for theory of mind (ToM). While VPT in apes is proven, its presence in monkeys is much-debated. Several different paradigms have been developed to test its existence, but all face interpretational problems since results can be explained by simpler cognitive mechanisms than VPT. Therefore, we adjusted one method where two individuals compete for access to food, visible or invisible for the dominant competitor, to preclude cognitively simpler mechanisms. The subordinate long-tailed macaques tested, selected significantly more often the food item invisible than the item visible to the dominant. In most trials, subjects retrieved only one food item and preferred the invisible food item. Surprisingly, they occasionally adopted an alternative strategy to obtain both food items, by first choosing the visible, most at risk food item. Faster animals adopted this strategy proportionally more often than slower ones. Contrary to previous research, our results cannot be explained by simpler cognitive mechanisms, since behavioural reading was prevented by a one-way mirror between the competitor and the food, and accessibility was equal to both food items. This is the first unequivocal evidence of VPT in a monkey species, suggesting that this precursor to ToM is an evolutionarily conserved capacity present in monkeys, apes and humans.
Kawai, H., Ishiyama, N., Hasegawa, K. and Nakamura, F. (2013), The relationship between the snowmelt flood and the establishment of non-native brown trout (Salmo trutta) in streams of the Chitose River, Hokkaido, northern Japan. Ecology of Freshwater Fish. doi: 10.1111/eff.12069
Flow regime is one of the major determinants of establishment success for non-native aquatic organisms. Here, we examine the influence of flow variability associated with snowmelt flood on the establishment success of non-native brown trout in 10 streams in northern Japan. We regarded the presence of Age-0 brown trout as the index of the successful establishment. The emergence of Age-0 brown trout in our study region begins in May, a time that overlaps with the occurrence of snowmelt flood. The presence of Age-0 brown trout was negatively associated with flow variability, and it was also negatively associated with summer water temperature. Our results indicate that the non-native brown trout tends to establish in the streams with smaller snowmelt floods and lower summer water temperatures. Brown trout is an invasive, non-native species that is problematic all over the world, and effective management strategies for preventing their further expansion are urgently needed. This study suggests that river managers should recognise that stable streams such as spring-fed streams (i.e., low flow and summer water temperature) and flow-regulated streams, have a higher potential risk of brown trout invasion.
Walker, R. H., Kluender, E. R., Inebnit, T. E. and Reid Adams, S. (2013), Differences in diet and feeding ecology of similar-sized spotted (Lepisosteus oculatus) and shortnose (Lepisosteus platostomus) gars during flooding of a south-eastern US river. Ecology of Freshwater Fish. doi: 10.1111/eff.12066
Connection events between rivers and their adjacent floodplains can alter availability of resources. Riverine fishes opportunistically exploit seasonally available resources during periods of high water. Gars are known to utilize floodplain habitats throughout different life stages for spawning and feeding. Food habits of gars have been the focus of many studies; however, less is known regarding the partitioning of food resources between syntopic species overlapping in body size. Further, little information exists on food resources of shortnose gar, Lepisosteus platostomus. We report results of diet analysis of spotted, Lepisosteus oculatus, and shortnose gar from the Fourche LaFave River in central Arkansas. Stomachs were examined from 74 adult spotted gar (46–81 cm TL) and 91 adult shortnose gar (49–76 cm TL) collected between May and July 2007 during flooding. Forty-seven (64%) spotted and 54 (59%) shortnose gar contained identifiable prey items. Spotted and shortnose gars had low diet overlap (33.0%), indicating these two species partition food resources. Considering percent composition by weight (%Cw), spotted and shortnose gar appear to partition available food resources during summer flooding. Percent composition by weight of fishes and crustaceans was significantly greater in the diet of spotted gar than shortnose gar (Table 2). Shortnose gar had significantly greater %Cw of amphibians and terrestrial invertebrates compared to spotted gar. It is likely that the seasonal and consistent annual availability of terrestrial subsidies to the system holds a unique importance for the shortnose gar population.
HORN, D. J. and JOHANSEN, S. M. (2013), A comparison of bird-feeding practices in the United States and Canada. Wildlife Society Bulletin. doi: 10.1002/wsb.281
Millions of Americans and Canadians participate in the feeding of wild birds. We surveyed hobbyists about their bird-feeding experience, and examined demographic and regional differences in responses, to determine the types of bird-feeding practices taking place and to identify themes important for wildlife managers to communicate with people who feed birds. Between autumn 2005 and winter 2008–2009, we recruited a non-random sample from the interested public though both print and electronic media. We had 1,291 individuals from 48 states (USA) and 7 Canadian provinces who completed our mail and website survey. Survey respondents were primarily female (67%) and ≥45 years old (77%). Most respondents offered alternative foods in addition to traditional bird seed (≥82%) and provided other resources besides food to attract birds (≥75%). Our respondents fed birds because it brought nature (84%) and accompanying sound (81%) to the area, as a hobby (79%), and to help the birds (79%). Respondents felt attracting more bird species (69%), a greater number of birds (41%), and no pests (35%) would make their bird-feeding experience more satisfying. Given the interested public’s desire to increase bird diversity at their feeders and to help birds, managers have the opportunity to develop messages promoting habitat enhancement in addition to feeding, and provide suggestions for reducing the risk of disease transmission and pest species at feeders.
Matthews, T. W., Tyre, A. J., Taylor, J. S., Lusk, J. J. and Powell, L. A. (2013), Greater prairie-chicken nest success and habitat selection in southeastern Nebraska. The Journal of Wildlife Management. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.564
Greater prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) are reported to benefit from grasslands created through the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Prairie-chicken population size increased noticeably in southeastern Nebraska after >15% of county-level landscapes were converted to CRP grasslands. But, the mechanisms behind the increase in population size are not well understood, and managers and policy makers could benefit from evidence of CRP’s relative contribution to populations of prairie-chickens. Therefore, our objectives were to characterize the relations of vegetation structure and composition with prairie-chicken nest-site selection and nest survival rates at both the macrohabitat (within landscape of study site) and microhabitat (at the nest) level. We radio-marked female prairie-chickens at a study site with >15% of land enrolled in CRP in Johnson County in southeastern Nebraska. We monitored 90 nests during 2006–2007, 36 (40%) of which were successful. We compared nest sites‘ macro- and microhabitat characteristics with random points using discrete choice analyses, and we used logistic exposure analyses to assess the effect of habitat and other variables on nest survival. Prairie-chickens were 5.70 (95% CI: 2.60–12.48) times more likely to select cool-season CRP fields, and 5.05 (95% CI: 2.17–11.72) times more likely to select warm-season CRP fields for nesting relative to selecting rangeland. Prairie-chickens selected nest sites, relative to sites available in fields selected for nesting, with abundant grass cover and moderate levels of forb cover and standing litter. Females also selected sites at upper elevations. Nest survival was influenced by macrohabitat, microhabitat, and temporal variables; nest survival was greater in CRP fields and greatest for nests with abundant grass cover and forb cover and moderate levels of residual litter. Nest survival peaked, temporally, with nests initiated in late May. The size of the prairie-chicken population in southeastern Nebraska has increased since the landscape was modified under CRP, and the reproductive benefits that our study demonstrates could support such population-level responses. We would expect the population to continue to benefit from management that provides high quality, diverse grasslands.
E. V. Ivanter, Yu. P. Kurkhinen, A. V. Sokolov
Ecology of the field vole (Microtus agrestis L.) in indigenous and anthropogenic landscapes of Eastern Fennoscandia
Russian Journal of Ecology, May 2013, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 213-220
The state of the population, biotopic distribution, and population dynamics of the field vole are analyzed on the basis of long-term studies performed in 1956–2012 in taiga ecosystems of Eastern Fennoscandia affected by anthropogenic transformations. General trends and regional and landscape-related specific features of the effects of forest exploitation on the structure of habitats, abundance, and spatial distribution of the field vole are discussed in comparative ecological aspect.
V. G. Degtyarev, S. M. Sleptsov, A. E. Pshennikov
Territoriality in the eastern population of the Siberian Crane, Grus leucogeranus
Russian Journal of Ecology, May 2013, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 207-212
Intrapopulation and interspecific territorial contacts of the eastern Grus leucogeranus population during the breeding period are described and analyzed on the basis of data obtained in the course of long-term observations.
A. V. Artemyev
The influence of climate change on the ecology of the Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) in Southern Karelia
Russian Journal of Ecology, May 2013, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 239-246
The paper is devoted to the ecology of the Pied Flycatcher in Southern Karelia, where climate warming has had almost no effect on the weather in spring, the season especially important for birds. During the 30-year observation period, the local population has been characterized by variable breeding phenology, high fecundity, and relatively stable abundance. This appears to be related to the broad norm of reaction of this species to the action of external factors, which allows the birds to flexibly respond to changes in the unstable spring weather and adjust the timing and rates of their seasonal activities.
Mohammad Kaboli, Mansour Aliabadian, Atefeh Chamani, Eric Pasquet, Roger Prodon
Morphological relationships of the Wheatears (genus Oenanthe)
Russian Journal of Ecology, May 2013, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 251-259
The genus Oenanthe comprises approximately 22 species, of which 16 species are restricted to the desert belt of the Palaearctic and Afrotropic regions, where they are often the most conspicuous passerines. Although they have been the subjects of some morphological and ecological studies, no complete morphometrical data has been used to verify their taxonomic relationships, and, the species relationships are still debated. Overall morphometrical similarities between Wheatears and their relationships in size and shape were assessed using measurements of 27 biometrical variables on 417 museum specimens. The 22 Wheatear species comprise some morphological groups: long migratory vegetation-tolerant species (O. pleschanka, O. hispanica, O. cypriaca and O. deserti), ground-dwelling migratory (O. isabellina and O. oenanthe), and sedentary (O. bottae, O. heuglini and O. pileata) of steppe-like habitants, relatively heavy and rock-dwelling species (O. leucura and O. monticola), inhabiting the most arid areas (O. monacha, O. leucopyga and O. alboniger), and finally a central core of medium-sized partial migrants, largely overlapping in morphometric space, that do not present any evident specialization (O. lugens, O. chrysopygia, O. xanthoprymna and O. finschii). It seems Wheatear species are well distributed in a morpho-space of size and shape with moderate overlaps and few hiatuses corresponding to a morphological continuum of species. Furthermore, our results largely hiatuses corresponding to a morphological continuum of species. Furthermore, our results largely differ from previous phylogenetic hypotheses (based on ecological, behavioural, and chromatic characters), but, are in congruence with molecular data.
A. R. Koporikov, V. D. Bogdanov
Changes in the hepatosomatic index of semianadromous burbot, Lota lota L. (Lotidae), in the Ob River depending on fish physiological state and foraging conditions
Russian Journal of Ecology, May 2013, Volume 44, Issue 3, pp 233-238
The results of long-term observations on changes in the hepatosomatic index of burbot in the Lower Ob basin are presented. The dynamics of this index are considered as dependent on fish sex, stage of gonad maturity, period of reproductive cycle, body damage or abnormalities, and feeding intensity.
Sexual size dimorphism in ground squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae: Marmotini) does not correlate with body size and sociality
Mat¿j¿ J, Kratochvíl L
Frontiers in Zoology 2013, 10:27 (14 May 2013)
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is a widespread phenomenon in animals including mammals. It has been demonstrated that across species, the direction and magnitude of sexual dimorphism in body size often corresponds to social systems. Moreover, many animal lineages conform to „Rensch’s rule“, which states that male-biased SSD increases with body size. We tested whether considerable differences in sociality and large variation in body size were connected with the evolution of SSD in the structural body size of ground squirrels, an otherwise ecologically relatively homogenous group of terrestrial rodents.
We found the general trend of male-biased SSD in ground squirrels, however, male size increases nearly perfectly isometrically with female size among species and sociality does not explain departures from this relationship. Species with different sociality grades significantly differ in body size, with the most social species tending to be the largest.
We suggest that lack of conformity with Rensch s rule in ground squirrels may be attributed to their low variation in SSD, and briefly discuss three potential causes of small magnitude of SSD in the structural size in rodents: low selection on SSD in structural dimensions, ontogenetic and genetic constraints and the existence of ecological/selection