Abstract View

Phylogeography and postglacial expansion of the endangered semi-aquatic mammal Galemys pyrenaicus
Igea J, Aymerich P, Fernández-González A, González-Esteban J, Gómez A, Alonso R, Gosálbez J, Castresana J
BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013, 13:115 (6 June 2013)

Species with strict ecological requirements may provide new insights into the forces that shaped the geographic variation of genetic diversity. The Pyrenean desman, Galemys pyrenaicus, is a small semi-aquatic mammal that inhabits clean streams of the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula and is endangered in most of its geographic range, but its genetic structure is currently unknown. While the stringent ecological demands derived from its aquatic habitat might have caused a partition of the genetic diversity among river basins, Pleistocene glaciations would have generated a genetic pattern related to glacial refugia.
To study the relative importance of historical and ecological factors in the genetic structure of G. pyrenaicus, we used mitochondrial and intronic sequences of specimens covering most of the species range. We show, first, that the Pyrenean desman has very low levels of genetic diversity compared to other mammals. In addition, phylogenetic and dating analyses of the mitochondrial sequences reveal a strong phylogeographic structure of a Middle Pleistocene origin, suggesting that the main lineages arose during periods of glacial isolation. Furthermore, both the spatial distribution of nuclear and mitochondrial diversity and the results of species distribution modeling suggest the existence of a major glacial refugium in the northwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula. Finally, the main mitochondrial lineages show a striking parapatric distribution without any apparent exchange of mitochondrial haplotypes between the lineages that came into secondary contact (although with certain permeability to nuclear genes), indicating incomplete mixing after the post-glacial recolonization. On the other hand, when we analyzed the partition of the genetic diversity among river basins, the Pyrenean desman showed a lower than expected genetic differentiation among main rivers.
The analysis of mitochondrial and intronic markers in G. pyrenaicus showed the predominant effects of Pleistocene glaciations on the genetic structure of this species, while the distribution of the genetic diversity was not greatly influenced by the main river systems. These results and, particularly, the discovery of a marked phylogeographic structure, may have important implications for the conservation of the Pyrenean desman.

Habitat selection by bluetongue lizards (Tiliqua, Scincidae) in tropical Australia: a study using GPS telemetry
Price-Rees SJ, Brown GP, Shine R
Animal Biotelemetry 2013, 1:7 (7 June 2013)

Emerging global positioning system (GPS) technologies can clarify movement patterns of free-ranging animals in far more detail than has been possible with previous methods. We conducted long-term (mean, 65 days; maximum, 221 days) GPS radio-tracking of 41 northern bluetongue lizards (Tiliqua scincoides intermedia) and 8 centralian bluetongue lizards (T. multifasciata) at two study sites in northwestern Australia, close to the border between Western Australia and the Northern Territory.
Individuals of both species spent long periods within small and distinctive habitat patches, interspersed with longer directional relocations from one patch to the next. Our sampling showed that these patches of core activity differed significantly from the surrounding landscape in several respects. The patches provided relatively shaded, cool, and damp conditions, with higher grass and more leaf-litter cover. The location of these patches in the landscape is probably determined by drainage patterns, soil moisture-holding ability, and stochastic recruitment of shade trees.
These scattered patches provide a critically important habitat for lizards (and probably, other taxa) within this hot dry landscape. Future conservation and management strategies need to prioritize the retention of such sites, at a spatial scale that allows animals to move between them.

Yinhua Huang et. al.: The duck genome and transcriptome provide insight into an avian influenza virus reservoir species
Nature Genetics (2013) doi:10.1038/ng.2657

The duck (Anas platyrhynchos) is one of the principal natural hosts of influenza A viruses. We present the duck genome sequence and perform deep transcriptome analyses to investigate immune-related genes. Our data indicate that the duck possesses a contractive immune gene repertoire, as in chicken and zebra finch, and this repertoire has been shaped through lineage-specific duplications. We identify genes that are responsive to influenza A viruses using the lung transcriptomes of control ducks and ones that were infected with either a highly pathogenic (A/duck/Hubei/49/05) or a weakly pathogenic (A/goose/Hubei/65/05) H5N1 virus. Further, we show how the duck’s defense mechanisms against influenza infection have been optimized through the diversification of its β-defensin and butyrophilin-like repertoires. These analyses, in combination with the genomic and transcriptomic data, provide a resource for characterizing the interaction between host and influenza viruses.

Zootaxa 3669 (4): 551–570 (10 Jun. 2013)
Rediscovery of Sagittalarva inornata n. gen., n. comb. (Gilbert, 1890) (Perciformes: Labridae), a long-lost deepwater fish from the eastern Pacific Ocean: a case study of a forensic approach to taxonomy using DNA barcoding
BENJAMIN C. VICTOR, MICHAEL E. ALFARO & LAURIE SORENSON

Some of the more valuable contributions of a standardized DNA sequence database (the DNA barcode) are matching specimens of different life stages and confirming the species identity of individuals from distant locations. These applications can facilitate the detective work required to solve difficult taxonomic problems. In this case, a match was made between the COI mtDNA sequence of an adult male wrasse recently caught at the tip of Baja California in Mexico in deep water (30–100m) and sequences from a series of unusual larvae collected about 3500 km to the south, in the open ocean over the Galápagos Rift hydrothermal vents in 1985. The Baja adults fit the recent description of Halichoeres raisneri Baldwin & McCosker, 2001 from the Galápagos and Cocos Islands. However, another deepwater labrid is known from the same site and depth in Baja; it is the type locality for the century-old holotype and only specimen of the Cape Wrasse Pseudojulis inornatus Gilbert, 1890 (later as Pseudojuloides inornatus). Deepwater video images from the tip of Baja show wrasses identical to H. raisneri photographed in Galápagos but who also fit the description of Pseudojulisinornatus. This coincidence led to a closer investigation of the holotype with x-ray, which revealed unanticipated caniniform teeth (vs. incisiform in Pseudojuloides) and an error in the fin-ray count in the original description, both of which mistakenly separated Halichoeres raisneri. The two species now match in markings, meristics, and morphology as well as overlapping range and are therefore synonymized. Phenetic and phylogenetic trees using mtDNA and nuclear DNA sequences show the species is not close to any other lineage and does not group with the other julidine labrids of the New World or the Pseudojuloides or Halichoeres of the Indo-Pacific. The distinctive larval morphology, long, thin, and flattened with a sharply pointed black-tipped snout, resembles no other described labrid larvae and, without an available genus, the new genus Sagittalarva Victor, n. gen. and the new combination Sagittalarva inornata (Gilbert, 1890), n. gen., n. comb. are described.

The presence of microcystins in fish Cyprinus carpio tissues: a histopathological study
Mitsoura A, Kagalou I, Papaioannou N, Berillis P, Mente E, Papadimitriou T
International Aquatic Research 2013, 5:8 (10 June 2013)

The occurrence of heavy cyanobacterial blooms has become a worldwide problem, as a consequence of eutrophication of the aquatic ecosystems; furthermore, 60% to 75% of these blooms have been found to be toxic. Microcystins (MCYSTs), the predominant toxins of cyanobacterial blooms, are associated with mortality and illness in both animals and humans. Laboratory-controlled experiments studying the effects of different microcystins on the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) have revealed various histopathological alterations. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of chronic or subchronic exposure of fish to microcystins under natural environmental conditions by examining the possible histopathological changes associated with a dense cyanobacterial bloom and determining the microcystin contents of fish tissues. Common carps (C. carpio) were caught from Lake Karla (Greece), during a dense cyanobacterial bloom. The concentration of MCYSTs in the fish liver, kidney and muscle tissues was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The pseudogaster contents were analysed, and a histopathological examination was performed using light and electron microscopy. Severe alterations were detected in the liver and the kidney, suggesting that the toxic effects were caused by various pollutants that were particularly associated with microcystins. The histopathological findings are also discussed, taking into consideration the health conditions of the common carp as a commercial fish species. The mechanisms of expansion of the microcystins and the poisoning of aquatic organisms (e.g. fish) are not yet known in the Lake Karla ecosystem. Future research may focus on identifying the changes caused by microcystins and other factors that exert similar effects on fish tissues, as well as on establishing the overall combined effect of all these factors on fish health.

Zootaxa 3670 (1): 001–032 (11 Jun. 2013)
A morphology-based phylogeny of the Liolaemus alticolor–bibronii group (Iguania: Liolaemidae)
ANDRÉS SEBASTIÁN QUINTEROS

The genus Liolaemus was split in two subgenera, Liolaemus sensu stricto and Eulaemus. Inside the Liolaemus sensu stricto subgenus, many groups have been proposed. One of them is the L. alticolor-bibronii group. Here, I studied 184 morphological characters of more than one thousand specimens that of the L. alticolor-bibronii group. Many of these characters are original from this study, especially the characters related to color pattern. Also, I include eight population without taxonomic status. Using those characters and terminal taxa, I performed phylogenetic analyses using parsimony as optimality criterion, under implied weight. Two difpferent topologies were found. The results show that the L. alticolor-bibronii group is monophyletic, and that it is sister to the L. gravenhorsti group. This finding is congruent with previous morphological and molecular phylogenies. Also, nested within the L. alticolor-bibronii group the L. lemniscatus and the L. robertmentensi groups are found. In contrast to previous hypotheses, Liolaemus tacnae is never recovered as a member of the L. alticolor-bibronii group.

Zootaxa 3670 (1): 033–044 (11 Jun. 2013)
A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from Gunung Mulu National Park, Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo)
J. MAXIMILIAN DEHLING & MASAFUMI MATSUI

We describe a new species of Leptolalax from Gunung Mulu National Park in eastern Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. The
new species had been assigned to Leptolalax dringi and Leptolalax gracilis in the past. It is shown to differ from both these species and from all other species of the genus by a unique combination of morphological characters including large body size, rounded snout, interorbital distance being smaller than width of upper eyelid, bipartite subgular vocal sac in males, basal toe webbing, shagreened skin with tiny tubercles on dorsum and dorsal side of head, angled supratympanic fold, small pectoral glands, absence of supraaxillary glands and ventrolateral glandular ridges, spotted venter, advertisement call consisting of long series of 8–289 notes, each composed of three or four pulses, and dominant frequency at 7225–9190 Hz, with prominent frequency modulation.

Zootaxa 3670 (1): 055–062 (11 Jun. 2013)
A long-lost relic from the Eastern Ghats: Morphology, distribution and habitat of Sepsophis punctatus Beddome, 1870 (Squamata: Scincidae)
ANIRUDDHA DATTA-ROY, PRATYUSH P. MOHAPATRA, SUSHIL K. DUTTA, VARAD B. GIRI, DEEPAK VEERAPPAN, SIMON T. MADDOCK, PRUDHVI RAJ, ISHAN AGARWAL, & PRAVEEN KARANTH

Sepsophis punctatus Beddome 1870, the only species of a monotypic genus, was described based on a single specimen from the Eastern Ghats of India. We rediscovered the species based on specimens from Odisha and Andhra Pradesh state, India, after a gap of 137 years, including four specimens from close to the type locality. The holotype was studied in detail, and we present additional morphological characters of the species with details on natural history, habitat and diet. The morphological characters of the holotype along with two additional specimens collected by Beddome are compared with the specimens collected by us.
We also briefly discuss the distribution of other members of the subfamily Scincinae and their evolutionary affinities.

Comparison of three different sedative-anaesthetic protocols (ketamine, ketamine-medetomidine and alphaxalone) in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)
Bakker J, Uilenreef JJ, Pelt ER, Brok HP, Remarque EJ, Langermans JA
BMC Veterinary Research 2013, 9:113 (11 June 2013)

Handling of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) usually requires chemical restraint. Ketamine has been associated with muscle damage in primates, while common marmosets, compared to other primates, additionally display an exceptional high sensitivity to ketamine-associated side-effects. Notably, muscle twitching movements of limbs and hands, and a marked increase in salivation are observed. We investigated two alternative intramuscular (i.m.) immobilisation protocols against ketamine (50 mg/kg; protocol 1) in a double-blind randomised crossover study in ten healthy adult common marmosets for use as a safe reliable, short-term immobilisation and sedation. These protocols comprised: alphaxalone (12 mg/kg; protocol 2) and 25 mg/kg ketamine combined with 0.50 mg/kg medetomidine (reversal with 2.5 mg/kg atipamezole; protocol 3A). Following completion and unblinding, the project was extended with an additional protocol (3B), comprising 25 mg/kg ketamine combined with 0.05 mg/kg medetomidine (reversal with 0.25 mg/kg atipamezole, twice with 35 min interval).
All protocols in this study provided rapid onset (induction times We conclude that intramuscular administration of 12 mg/kg alphaxalone to common marmosets is preferred over other protocols studied. Protocol 2 resulted in at least comparable immobilisation quality with acceptable and less frequent side effects and superior recovery quality. In all protocols, supportive therapy, such as external heat support, remains mandatory. Notably, an unacceptable long recovery period in both ketamine/medetomidine protocols (subsequently reversed with atipamezole) was observed, showing that alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists in the used dose and dosing regime is not the first choice for sedation in common marmosets in a standard research setting.

Zootaxa 3670 (2): 177–192 (12 Jun. 2013)
A new barbeled goby from south China (Teleostei: Gobiidae)
RONGFENG CUI, YASHU PAN, XINMING YANG & YINGYONG WANG

A new goby species Tridentiger radiatus sp. nov. is described from Zhuhai, Guangdong Province of China. The new species, found in sympatry with a widely distributed barbeled congener Tridentiger barbatus (Günther, 1861), is one of the only two Tridentiger species known to possess mandibular and cheek barbels. Tridentiger radiatus is diagnosed by having higher longitudinal and transverse scale counts, less developed barbels, unmottled colouration compared to T. barbatus, and 3 dusky radiating infraorbital bands. Partial 12s rDNA sequence data obtained from 5 individuals of T. radiatus and 2 individuals of T. barbatus, together with published sequence data of other congeners confirmed validity of the new species. The divergence between T. radiatus and T. barbatus well exceeds the divergence of other sister taxa in the same genus. Monophyly of the two barbeled species is supported.

Zootaxa 3670 (2): 207–214 (12 Jun. 2013)
Putative type specimens of Satyrichthys (Scorpaeniformes: Peristediidae) in the Bleeker collection of the Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
MARTIEN J.P. VAN OIJEN, TOSHIO KAWAI & INEKE LOOTS

The presumed type status of the two remaining specimens of Peristedion moluccense Bleeker 1850 in the collection the
Naturalis Biodiversity Center was examined by comparing them to descriptions in two Bleeker papers and an unpublished
manuscript by Bleeker written for the Atlas Ichthyologique. Latin, French and Dutch parts of these papers were translated into English. The Dutch description of P. laticeps Schlegel 1852 was also translated. In the course of this study it became clear why Bleeker considered P. laticeps, a as a synonym of P. moluccense.

Zootaxa 3670 (2): 238–254 (12 Jun. 2013)
Complex phylogeography in Rhinoclemmys melanosterna: conflicting mitochondrial and nuclear evidence suggests past hybridization (Testudines: Geoemydidae)
MARIO VARGAS-RAMÍREZ, JOHN L. CARR & UWE FRITZ

We examined differentiation within the Colombian wood turtle Rhinoclemmys melanosterna, and among R. melanosterna
and the closely allied species R. diademata, R. funerea and R. punctularia, based on 1060 base pairs of the mitochondrial
cyt b gene. We also assessed the phylogenetic relationships among these species using 2050 bp of mtDNA (partial cyt b,
12S and 16S genes) and 3620 bp of nuclear DNA (partial Rag 1, Rag 2, C-mos, R35 and ODC genes). There is considerable phylogeographic structuring within R. melanosterna, with seven distinct clades distributed across the species’ range.
These clades correlate to some extent with previously described differences in the dorsal pattern of head coloration. Individual and combined analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA indicated contradictory relationships among R.
melanosterna, R. diademata, R. funerea and R. punctularia. Mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed R. melanosterna to
be non-monophyletic with respect to R. diademata, R. funerea and R. punctularia. In contrast, R. melanosterna constituted a well-supported monophyletic clade using nuclear DNA. This conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear data suggests past gene flow among the allopatrically and parapatrically distributed species R. melanosterna, R. diademata, R. funerea and R. punctularia. Compared to the other Rhinoclemmys species, the taxa under study are weakly differentiated. To assess their taxonomic status, further research is warranted using additional nuclear markers and additional samples of R. diademata, R. funerea and R. punctularia. For the time being, a continued classification of R. melanosterna, R. diademata, R. funerea and R. punctularia as distinct species is justified owing to their allopatric and parapatric distributions, and to conserve the established usage of names that is based on morphological and karyotypic differentiation.

Sébastien Derégnaucourt and Manfred Gahr
Horizontal transmission of the father’s song in the Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata)
Biology Letters, June 12, 2013; doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2013.0247

As is the case for human speech, birdsong is transmitted across generations by imitative learning. Although transfer of song patterns from adults to juveniles typically occurs via vertical or oblique transmission, there is also evidence of horizontal transmission between juveniles of the same generation. Here, we show that a young male zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) that has been exposed to its father during the sensitive period for song learning can lead a brother, that has never heard the paternal song, to imitate some sounds of the father. Moreover, song similarity between the two brothers was higher than the similarity measured between the paternal song and the song of the brother that had a week-long exposure to the father. We speculate that the phenomenon of within-generation song learning among juveniles may be more widespread than previously thought and that when a juvenile evaluates potential models for imitative learning, a sibling may be as salient as an adult.

Taxonomic review of the Ornithocheirus complex (Pterosauria) from the Cretaceous of England
Taissa Rodrigues, Alexander Kellner
ZooKeys 308 (2013) Special Issue: 1-112
doi: 10.3897/zookeys.308.5559

Over a decade after the last major review of the Cambridge Greensand pterosaurs, their systematics remains one of the most disputed points in pterosaur taxonomy. Ornithocheiridae is still a wastebasket for fragmentary taxa, and some nomenclatural issues are still a problem. Here, the species from the Cretaceous of England that, at some point, were referred in Ornithocheirus, are reviewed. Investigation of the primary literature confirmed that Criorhynchus should be considered an objective junior synonym of Ornithocheirus. Taxonomic review of more than 30 species known from fragmentary remains showed that 16 of them are undiagnosable (nomina dubia): Palaeornis cliftii, Cimoliornis diomedeus, Pterodactylus compressirostris, Pterodactylus fittoni, Pterodactylus woodwardi, Ornithocheirus brachyrhinus, Ornithocheirus carteri, Ornithocheirus crassidens, Ornithocheirus dentatus, Ornithocheirus enchorhynchus, Ornithocheirus eurygnathus, Ornithocheirus oxyrhinus, Ornithocheirus scaphorhynchus, Ornithocheirus tenuirostris, Ornithocheirus xyphorhynchus, and Pterodactylus sagittirostris. Fourteen species are considered valid, and diagnoses are provided to all of them: Ornithocheirus simus, Lonchodraco giganteus comb. n., Lonchodraco machaerorhynchus comb. n., Lonchodraco(?) microdon comb. n., Coloborhynchus clavirostris, ‘Ornithocheirus’ capito, Camposipterus nasutus comb. n., Camposipterus(?) sedgwickii comb. n., Camposipterus(?) colorhinus comb. n., Cimoliopterus cuvieri comb. n., ‘Ornithocheirus’ polyodon, ‘Ornithocheirus’ platystomus, ‘Pterodactylus’ daviesii, and ‘Ornithocheirus’ denticulatus. These species are referred in the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodraco gen. n., Coloborhynchus, Cimoliopterus gen. n., and Camposipterus gen. n., but additional genera are probably present, as indicated by the use of single quotation marks throughout the text. A cladistic analysis demonstrates that Anhangueridae lies within a newly recognized clade, here named Anhangueria, which also includes the genera Cearadactylus, Brasileodactylus, Ludodactylus, and Camposipterus. The anhanguerian ‘Cearadactylus’ ligabuei belongs to a different genus than Cearadactylus atrox. Lonchodraconidae fam. n. (more or less equivalent to Lonchodectidae sensu Unwin 2001) is a monophyletic entity, but its exact phylogenetic position remains uncertain, as is the case of Ornithocheirus simus. Therefore, it is proposed that Ornithocheiridae should be constricted to its type species and thus is redundant. Other taxa previously referred as “ornithocheirids” are discussed in light of the revised taxonomy.

A global model of avian influenza prediction in wild birds: the importance of northern regions
Herrick KA, Huettmann F, Lindgren MA
Veterinary Research 2013, 44:42 (13 June 2013)

Avian influenza virus (AIV) is enzootic to wild birds, which are its natural reservoir. The virus exhibits a large degree of genetic diversity and most of the isolated strains are of low pathogenicity to poultry. Although AIV is nearly ubiquitous in wild bird populations, highly pathogenic H5N1 subtypes in poultry have been the focus of most modeling efforts. To better understand viral ecology of AIV, a predictive model should 1) include wild birds, 2) include all isolated subtypes, and 3) cover the host’s natural range, unbounded by artificial country borders. As of this writing, there are few large-scale predictive models of AIV in wild birds. We used the Random Forests algorithm, an ensemble data-mining machine-learning method, to develop a global-scale predictive map of AIV, identify important predictors, and describe the environmental niche of AIV in wild bird populations. The model has an accuracy of 0.79 and identified northern areas as having the highest relative predicted risk of outbreak. The primary niche was described as regions of low annual rainfall and low temperatures. This study is the first global-scale model of low-pathogenicity avian influenza in wild birds and underscores the importance of largely unstudied northern regions in the persistence of AIV.

Zootaxa 3670 (4): 401–439 (14 Jun. 2013)
Taxonomy and redescription of the Atherton Antechinus, Antechinus godmani (Thomas) (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae)
ANDREW M BAKER & STEVE VAN DYCK

We provide a taxonomic redescription of the dasyurid marsupial Atherton Antechinus, Antechinus godmani (Thomas). A.
godmani is only rarely encountered and limited to wet tropical rainforests of north-east Queensland, Australia, between the towns of Cardwell and Cairns (a distribution spanning 135 kilometres from north to south). The distinctive species occurs at altitudes of over 600 meters asl, in all major rainforest types, and can be found with both the northern subspecies of the Yellow-footed Antechinus, A. flavipes rubeculus Van Dyck and the Rusty Antechinus, A. adustus (Thomas). A. godmani is clearly separated from all congeners on the basis of both morphometrics and genetics. A. godmani can be distinguished from all extant congeners based on external morphology by a combination of large size, naked-looking tail and reddish fur on the face and head. A. godmani skulls are characteristically large, with a suite of long features: basicranium, palate, upper premolar tooth row, inter-palatal vacuity distance and dentary. Phylogenies generated from mt- and nDNA data position Antechinus godmani as monophyletic with respect to other members of the genus; A. godmani is strongly supported as the sister-group to a clade containing all other antechinus, but excluding the south-east Australian Dusky Antechinus, A. swainsonii (Waterhouse) and Swamp Antechinus, A. minimus (Geoffroy). Antechinus godmani are genetically very divergent compared to all congeners (mtDNA: range 12.9–16.3%).

Zootaxa 3670 (4): 516–530 (14 Jun. 2013)
Aphyosemion pamaense, a new killifish species (Cyprinodontiformes: Nothobranchiidae) from Cameroon
JEAN-FRANCOIS AGNESE, OLIVIER LEGROS, BENOITE CAZAUX & GUILLAIN ESTIVALS

Aphyosemion pamaense sp. nov. is described from the Pama River, a small tributary of the Nyong, in the surroundings of
Pama, Cameroon. It belongs to the subgenus Chromaphyosemion Radda, 1971 and is distinguished from its relatives by
a unique/diagnostic combination of characters: orange unpaired fins, an anal fin without spots, an orange throat and purple to blue-grey flanks. The new species is also genetically differentiated from all the other Chromaphyosemion species as revealed by mtDNA (cytochrome b) analysis and characterised by a unique karyotype showing tentative sex chromosomes with 2n=35 chromosomes in males versus 2n=36 in females.

Zootaxa 3670 (4): 579–590 (14 Jun. 2013)
Description of a new species of Microhyla from Bali, Indonesia (Amphibia, Anura)
MASAFUMI MATSUI, AMIR HAMIDY & KOSHIRO ETO

We describe a microhylid frog from Bali, Indonesia as a new species, Microhyla orientalis sp. nov. It belongs to the M. achatina group and is close to M. mantheyi, M. malang, and M. borneensis. It is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: small size (adult males about 16–17 mm in SVL); a faint vertebral stripe present; a black lateral stripe from behind eye to half length of trunk; snout rounded in profile; eyelid without supraciliary spines; first finger less than one-fifth of third; tips of three outer fingers weakly dilated, forming weak disks, dorsally with median longitudinal groove; outer palmar tubercle single; tibiotarsal articulation reaching up to center of eye; tips of toes distinctly dilated into disks, dorsally with median longitudinal groove; inner and outer metatarsal tubercles present; four or more phalanges on inner and outer sides of fourth toe, and three phalanges on inner side of fifth toe free of web; and tail of larva with a black marking at middle. The male advertisement call of the new species consists of a series of notes each lasts for 0.01−0.08 s and composed of 3−5 pulses with a dominant frequency of 3.2–3.6 kHz. Uncorrected sequence divergences between M. orientalis and all homologous 16S rRNA sequences available were >6.6%. At present, the new species is known from rice fields between 435–815 m elevation in Wongaya Gede and Batukaru.

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