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Zootaxa 3681 (2): 101–135 (20 Jun. 2013)
Limits and phylogenetic relationships of East Asian fishes in the subfamily Oxygastrinae (Teleostei: Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae)
KEVIN L. TANG, MARY K. AGNEW, M. VINCENT HIRT, DANIEL N. LUMBANTOBING, MORGAN E. RALEY, TETSUYA SADO, VIEW-HUNE TEOH, LEI YANG, HENRY L. BART, PHILLIP M. HARRIS, SHUNPING HE, MASAKI MIYA, KENJI SAITOH, ANDREW M. SIMONS, ROBERT M. WOOD & RICHARD L. MAYDEN

The cyprinid subfamily Oxygastrinae is composed of a diverse group of fishes that has been taxonomically and phylogenetically problematic. Their great variation in appearance, life histories, and trophic diversity resulted in uncertainty regarding their relationships, which led to their historical classification across many disparate subfamilies. The phylogenetic relationships of Oxygastrinae are resolved based on sequence data from four loci: cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase I, opsin, and recombination activating gene 1. A combined data matrix consisting of 4114 bp for 144 taxa was compiled and analyzed using maximum likelihood and parsimony optimality criteria. The subfamily Oxygastrinae is recovered as a monophyletic group that includes Ancherythroculter, Aphyocypris, Candidia, Chanodichthys, Ctenopharyngodon, Culter, Distoechodon, Elopichthys, Hainania, Hemiculter, Hemiculterella, Hemigrammocypris, Hypophthalmichthys, Ischikauia, Macrochirichthys, Megalobrama, Metzia, Mylopharyngodon, Nicholsicypris, Nipponocypris, Ochetobius, Opsariichthys, Oxygaster, Parabramis, Parachela, Paralaubuca, Pararasbora, Parazacco, Plagiognathops, Pseudobrama, Pseudohemiculter,
Pseudolaubuca, Sinibrama, Squaliobarbus, Toxabramis, Xenocyprioides, Xenocypris, Yaoshanicus, and Zacco.
Of these genera, the following were found to be monophyletic: Aphyocypris, Distoechodon, Hypophthalmichthys, Nipponocypris, Opsariichthys, Parachela, Paralaubuca, Plagiognathops, Xenocyprioides, and Xenocypris. The following genera were not monophyletic: Metzia, Hemiculter, Toxabramis, Ancherythroculter, Chanodichthys, Culter, Megalobrama.
The remainder are either monotypic or were represented by only a single species. Four genera not examined in this study are provisionally classified in Oxygastrinae: Anabarilius, Longiculter, Pogobrama, and Rasborichthys.

Zootaxa 3681 (2): 136–146 (20 Jun. 2013)
A new blind snake (Typhlopidae) from Northeastern Cuba
MICHEL DOMÍNGUEZ, ANSEL FONG G. & MANUEL ITURRIAGA

Typhlops leptolepis sp. nov. is a new blind snake from Holguín Province, northeastern region of Cuba. The new species is characterized by its small and thin body size, as well as a narrow rostral in dorsal view, longer than broad, with parallel to curved sides, tapering toward anterior tip. The preocular is in contact with third supralabial only. It has 20 anterior scale rows reducing to 18 posteriorly at around midbody or posterior to midbody, moderate to high middorsal scale counts (250–308), and a peculiar coloration (head, neck, and tail whitish spotted in ventral view). Based on its morphology, the new species can be placed within the Typhlops lumbricalis species group and a key to the species belonging to this group is presented.

Zootaxa 3681 (3): 241–248 (21 Jun. 2013)
A new species of the hoplichthyid genus Hoplichthys (Teleostei: Hoplichthyidae) from northern Western Australia
YUKI NAGANO, MARK A. McGROUTHER & MAMORU YABE

A new species of hoplichthyid, Hoplichthys imamurai, is described on basis of three specimens (128.9–143.6 mm SL)
collected from northern Western Australia. It is clearly distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: short preoptic snout (31.2–32.7% HL); vomer without teeth; long, thin, gill rakers; low first dorsal fin, its adpressed tips not reaching origin of second dorsal fin in males; some filament-like elongated second dorsal-fin rays in males; emarginate caudal fin, upper edge elongated and filament-like in males. Toothless vomer and form of caudal fin are characters unique to H. imamurai in this genus.

H. Frouin, M. Haulena, L.M.F. Akhurst, S. Raverty, P.S. Ross, Immune status and function in harbor seal pups during the course of rehabilitation, Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, Available online 20 June 2013, ISSN 0165-2427, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2013.06.011.
Routine haematological and serum chemistry parameters are important tools for the evaluation of health and the treatment of marine mammals admitted to rehabilitation centres. The evaluation of phagocytosis, oxidative burst and immunoglobulin G (IgG), as markers of immune system function, and haptoglobin (Hp), as a stress marker, were evaluated alongside routine haematology and chemistry as potentially informative diagnostic tools for marine mammal health assessments. Blood samples from harbor seal pups (Phoca vitulina) admitted to and released from, the Vancouver Aquarium’s Marine Mammal Rescue Centre (VAMMRC) were collected 1) to perform routine and novel functional approaches to evaluate the health of pups at admission; 2) to determine how these parameters changed during the rehabilitation process; and 3) to generate baseline values for reference purposes. Sodium was the only blood parameter which differed between seal pups that survived and those that died, with the surviving pups exhibiting higher levels on admission diagnostics. Positive correlations between total protein concentrations, IgG and Hp levels were observed with globulin concentrations of seal pups. Changes in serum chemistry values between admission and release included a decrease in red blood cells (RBCs), glucose, bicarbonate, total bilirubin, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels, and an increase in mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocytes, eosinophils, urea, potassium, anion gap, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, albumin, globulin and osmolality levels. During the rehabilitation process, phagocytosis decreased, while Hp levels increased. Age and improved health appeared to underlie changes in these parameters during the rehabilitation period.

The direction of main phenotypic variance as a channel to evolution: cases in murine rodents
RENAUD, Sabrina; AUFFRAY, Jean-Christophe. The direction of main phenotypic variance as a channel to evolution: cases in murine rodents. Hystrix, the Italian Journal of Mammalogy, [S.l.], v. 24, n. 1, p. 9, jun. 2013. ISSN 1825-5272.

How evolution can be channeled by intrinsic processes such as genetic and developmental networks is a key issue in evolution. Studying the phenotypic variation in a population can shed light on these constraints, because this variation, being the product of these genetic and developmental processes, is the target of both selective screening and random sampling. It could thus act as a “line of least resistance to evolution”. Based on morphometric analysis of molar and mandible shape in several fossil lineages and modern groups of murine rodents, we illustrate here the questions that can be addressed based on this framework. The role intrapopulational variation as line of least resistance to evolution is validated on several lineages. The existence of such preferential direction of evolution can contribute to explain cases of parallel evolution. The underlying mechanisms can be the sharing of similar genetic/developmental pathways but also common functional constraints limiting the range of phenotypic variation to be explored. Comparing directions of intrapopulation variance to the course of interpopulation evolution can thus be of help to bridge several evolutionary levels and contribute to an integrated vision of the phenotypic evolution.

McConville, Anna, Law, Bradley S., and Mahony, Michael J. (2013) Mangroves as maternity roosts for a colony of the rare east-coast free-tailed bat (Mormopterus norfolkensis) in south-eastern Australia. Wildlife Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WR12222
Maternity roosts of insectivorous bats (where females raise young) are critical to the conservation of threatened species as roost quality can influence reproductive success. While mangrove forests have been largely overlooked as bat habitat, we found that they were locally unique and important to lactating female Mormopterus norfolkensis. Bats roosted in small numbers and switched roosts often, but the colony as a whole was faithful to two patches that had a high proportion of hollow-bearing trees.

Olga A. Filatova, Alexandr M. Burdin, Erich Hoyt, Is killer whale dialect evolution random?, Behavioural Processes, Available online 21 June 2013, ISSN 0376-6357, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2013.06.008.The killer whale is among the few species in which cultural change accumulates over many generations, leading to cumulative cultural evolution. Killer whales have group-specific vocal repertoires which are thought to be learned rather than being genetically coded. It is supposed that divergence between vocal repertoires of sister groups increases gradually over time due to random learning mistakes and innovations. In this case, the similarity of calls across groups must be correlated with pod relatedness and, consequently, with each other. In this study we tested this prediction by comparing the patterns of call similarity between matrilines of resident killer whales from Eastern Kamchatka. We calculated the similarity of seven components from three call types across 14 matrilines. In contrast to the theoretical predictions, matrilines formed different clusters on the dendrograms made by different calls and even by different components of the same call. We suggest three possible explanations for this phenomenon. First, the lack of agreement between similarity patterns of different components may be the result of constraints in the call structure. Second, it is possible that call components change in time with different speed and/or in different directions. Third, horizontal cultural transmission of call features may occur between matrilines.

Kalb, David M., Bowman, Jacob L., and Eyler, T. Brian (2013) Dispersal and home-range dynamics of exotic, male sika deer in Maryland. Wildlife Research, http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/WR13037
An introduced population of sika deer in Maryland has been growing exponentially; however, a paucity of information exists regarding this population. This paper reports average home range sizes, dispersal activities and several home range classifications of male sika deer. These results can be applicable to many areas where sika deer have been introduced as popular game species and are now competing with native wildlife.

Kazutaka Shinozuka, Haruka Ono, Shigeru Watanabe, Reinforcing and Discriminative Stimulus Properties of Music in Goldfish, Behavioural Processes, Available online 21 June 2013, ISSN 0376-6357, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2013.06.009.
This paper investigated whether music has reinforcing and discriminative stimulus properties in goldfish. Experiment 1 examined the discriminative stimulus properties of music. The subjects were successfully trained to discriminate between two pieces of music—Toccata and Fugue in D minor (BWV 565) by J. S. Bach and The Rite of Spring by I. Stravinsky. Experiment 2 examined the reinforcing properties of sounds, including BWV 565 and The Rite of Spring. We developed an apparatus for measuring spontaneous sound preference in goldfish. Music or noise stimuli were presented depending on the subject’s position in the aquarium, and the time spent in each area was measured. The results indicated that the goldfish did not show consistent preferences for music, although they showed significant avoidance of noise stimuli. These results suggest that music has discriminative but not reinforcing stimulus properties in goldfish.

D.T. Cerutti, J. Jozefowiez, J.E.R. Staddon, Rapid, Accurate Time Estimation in Zebrafish (Danio rerio), Behavioural Processes, Available online 21 June 2013, ISSN 0376-6357, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2013.06.007.
Zebrafish were tested in an appetitive Pavlovian delayed conditioning task. After an intertrial interval of k*T s (k =11.25; T= 8, 16 or 32 s), a small, translucent vertical pole was illuminated (CS) for T s. Food was presented at T/2 s. Pole-biting response latencies from CS onset were a linear function of the food delay T/2, with slope approximating unity (proportional timing), and standard deviation proportional to latency (scalar timing). Response latencies tracked changes in food delays even when they changed every other day. These findings are significant because the zebrafish genome has recently been sequenced, opening the door to studies in the genetics of interval timing.

Sandro Lovari, Andrea Sforzi, Emiliano Mori, Habitat richness affects home range size in a monogamous large rodent, Behavioural Processes, Available online 21 June 2013, ISSN 0376-6357, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2013.06.005.
In monogamous species, after pair formation, the main reason for ranging movements is not searching for a mate, but for other important resources e.g. food. We monitored a total of 20 radio-tagged adult, paired crested porcupines in four areas of different habitat richness. No sexual size dimorphism was assessed. Body mass and habitat richness showed collinearity. For both sexes, home range size was correlated to habitat richness, with a significant inverse exponential regression. Opposite to natural foragers, living in poor habitats, crop foragers had smaller home ranges, with their dens significantly closer to cultivations. Both availability of food resources and den sites are key variables to determine home range size.

Tara G. Martin, Peter Arcese, Petra M. Kuhnert, Anthony J. Gaston, Jean-Louis Martin, Prior information reduces uncertainty about the consequences of deer overabundance on forest birds, Biological Conservation, Volume 165, September 2013, Pages 10-17, ISSN 0006-3207, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.05.017.
Prior scientific knowledge inspires ecological research, hypotheses and debate but is rarely used explicitly to formulate predictive models. Bayesian statistics provide a formal way to include informative priors and evaluate their influence on parameter estimates. We use case studies of the influence of overabundant deer on bird species abundance in the Gulf Island, San Juan and Haida Gwaii archipelagos of western North America to demonstrate the utility of informative priors and Bayesian modelling to determine the consequences of overabundance. We found that by including informative priors about deer browsing impacts on bird species from a study undertaken in Haida Gwaii, the precision of estimates from a similar study undertaken in the Gulf and San Juan archipelagos could be significantly increased. Uncertainty about regional ecological impacts underpins many agencies failure to take management actions. We demonstrate here, that informative priors, when used logically and transparently, can be a highly cost effective way to increase understanding of ecological processes. In some cases, it may be the only way to inform decision-making when scarce resources limit support for long term field research or the threat is sufficiently great that immediate action is required. For several bird species examined here, the inclusion of informative priors strengthened the conclusion that their populations were negatively affected by changes in vegetation structure caused by deer browsing. Our findings suggest that deer browsing in these island archipelagos must be managed if the risk of local extinctions among native flora and fauna is to be avoided.

Frederic Beaudry, Volker C. Radeloff, Anna M. Pidgeon, Andrew J. Plantinga, David J. Lewis, David Helmers, Van Butsic, The loss of forest birds habitats under different land use policies as projected by a coupled ecological-econometric model, Biological Conservation, Volume 165, September 2013, Pages 1-9, ISSN 0006-3207, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.05.016.
Land use is driven by socio-economic factors that must be understood in order to mitigate habitat loss. Econometric land-use models describe how land use is affected by socio-economic factors, such as financial returns to different uses of land, and they can be linked to biological models to provide new insight for conservation. Our goal was to evaluate the effects of future land use change on the habitat of forest breeding bird species in northern Wisconsin. Specifically, we estimated the effects of land use change on the amount of habitat available and compared the effects of economic policy scenarios on bird habitat. To do this, we coupled a spatially-explicit econometric model of land use change on private lands with models of northern Wisconsin forest bird potential habitat, comparing a 50-yr baseline projection with a scenario providing incentives for forest growth and a high urban growth scenario. The baseline scenario suggests an average of 438,705 ha of forest lost (10%), with 1.9% of that saved under the Forest Incentive scenario, and a 1.6% greater loss for the Urban Growth scenario. Under baseline projections boreal birds experienced the least amount of habitat loss (2–3%), and deciduous forest birds the most (6–8%). For some species, the projected loss of habitat exacerbates ongoing long-term declining population trend. Coupled economic-ecological models can be used to evaluate alternative incentive programs and to explore the complex interactions between policy, land use change, and broad spatial scale ecological processes that are highly relevant to conservation.

Lourenço, R., Goytre, F., del Mar Delgado, M., Thornton, M., Rabaça, J. E. and Penteriani, V. (2013), Tawny owl vocal activity is constrained by predation risk. Journal of Avian Biology. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-048X.2013.00157.x
The vocal behaviour of birds may be influenced by many factors, including the risk of being detected by a predator. In Doñana Protected Area, the tawny owl co-exists alongside its intraguild predator, the eagle owl Bubo bubo. We considered four scenarios to study the vocal behaviour of tawny owls at dusk by analysing: A) the calling rate of all males in 29 sites; B) the calling rate at dusk of males living within the home range of the intraguild predator; C) the calling rate of males living within the home range of the intraguild predator between 60 and 90 min after sunset; and D) the duration of male vocal bouts in visits where eagle owls have called. In scenario A we found that only the number of conspecific males affected the calling rate of tawny owls. In scenario B we observed that the presence of an eagle owl calling constrained the calling rate of the intraguild prey. In scenario C we found that this effect seemed mostly associated to a contemporaneous detection of the intraguild predator’s calls. Finally, in scenario D we found no significant effects on bout duration. These results seem to indicate that tawny owls use their intraguild predator’s calls as a cue to assess predation risk, and then adjust their vocal behaviour in order to minimize predation risk by a predator that may locate its prey by its vocalizations.

Prasanna Desikan, Karthikeyan Karunakaran, G. Gokulnath, Design of an Aquatic Park and Salvation of Endangered Aquatic Species in its Natural Habitat, APCBEE Procedia, Volume 5, 2013, Pages 197-202, ISSN 2212-6708, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcbee.2013.05.035.
There are many wildlife conservation parks around the world which conserve wildlife within its natural habitat but sadly such parks are not available for aquatic species in its own marine ecosystem. This has led to extinction of quite a few species and loss of predatory instincts in the survived lot. So our aquatic park is designed such a way that both the aquatic life and its predatory instincts are preserved in its natural habitat (ocean). In our paper we design a circular diameter on the ocean where the aquatic life in consideration can be preserved. Since a physical boundary cannot be put up, we use ultrasonic deterrents to prevent these life forms from crossing the border. To truncate un-authorized entry in the park, we enable space-borne SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) and air-borne surveillance using un-manned aerial vehicle (UAV). Hence trespassing of poachers and fishermen can be stopped with an accuracy of about 95% and the remaining 5% includes the glitch due to technical snag.

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