Abstract View

Zootaxa 3709 (2): 162–176 (4 Sept. 2013)
A new species of Homonota (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkota: Phyllodactylidae) endemic to the hills of Paraje Tres Cerros, Corrientes Province, Argentina
RODRIGO CAJADE, EDUARDO GABRIEL ETCHEPARE, CAMILA FALCIONE, DIEGO ANDRÉS BARRASSO & BLANCA BEATRIZ ALVAREZ

The genus Homonota comprises nine South American species of terrestrial and nocturnal lizards. Homonota lizards lack the femoral pores typical of other South American Phyllodactylidae, and their infradigital lamellas are not expanded. We here describe a new species, Homonota taragui sp. nov., exclusively found on a small group of three hills up to 179 meters above sea level in central eastern Corrientes Province, Argentina. The new species differs from other Homonota species by a combination of characters, including: a well-marked dorsal, reticulate, dark pattern contrasting with a lighter colored background; small, star-shaped chromatophores on the abdomen; the post-orbital region of the head covered by granular scales; the dorsal and anterior regions of the thighs covered by keeled scales interspersed with cycloid scales; and the internasal scale in contact with rostral scales. The conservation status of Homonota taragui sp. nov. may be vulnerable, due to its localized endemism with populations on three small hills surrounded by intense agricultural and livestock activity. Two endemic plant species are known from these hills, and this new lizard represents the first endemic animal species.

Schreier, A. L. and Grove, M. (2013), Recurrent patterning in the daily foraging routes of hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas): Spatial memory in large-scale versus small-scale space. Am. J. Primatol.. doi: 10.1002/ajp.22192
The benefits of spatial memory for foraging animals can be assessed on two distinct spatial scales: small-scale space (travel within patches) and large-scale space (travel between patches). While the patches themselves may be distributed at low density, within patches resources are likely densely distributed. We propose, therefore, that spatial memory for recalling the particular locations of previously visited feeding sites will be more advantageous during between-patch movement, where it may reduce the distances traveled by animals that possess this ability compared to those that must rely on random search. We address this hypothesis by employing descriptive statistics and spectral analyses to characterize the daily foraging routes of a band of wild hamadryas baboons in Filoha, Ethiopia. The baboons slept on two main cliffs—the Filoha cliff and the Wasaro cliff—and daily travel began and ended on a cliff; thus four daily travel routes exist: Filoha–Filoha, Filoha–Wasaro, Wasaro–Wasaro, Wasaro–Filoha. We use newly developed partial sum methods and distribution-fitting analyses to distinguish periods of area-restricted search from more extensive movements. The results indicate a single peak in travel activity in the Filoha–Filoha and Wasaro–Filoha routes, three peaks of travel activity in the Filoha–Wasaro routes, and two peaks in the Wasaro–Wasaro routes; and are consistent with on-the-ground observations of foraging and ranging behavior of the baboons. In each of the four daily travel routes the “tipping points” identified by the partial sum analyses indicate transitions between travel in small- versus large-scale space. The correspondence between the quantitative analyses and the field observations suggest great utility for using these types of analyses to examine primate travel patterns and especially in distinguishing between movement in small versus large-scale space. Only the distribution-fitting analyses are inconsistent with the field observations, which may be due to the scale at which these analyses were conducted.

Jagnandan K, Sanford CP. 2013. Kinematics of ribbon-fin locomotion in the Bowfin, Amia calva. J. Exp. Zool. 9999:1–15.
An elongated dorsal and/or anal ribbon-fin to produce forward and backward propulsion has independently evolved in several groups of fishes. In these fishes, fin ray movements along the fin generate a series of waves that drive propulsion. There are no published data on the use of the dorsal ribbon-fin in the basal freshwater bowfin, Amia calva. In this study, frequency, amplitude, wavelength, and wave speed along the fin were measured in Amia swimming at different speeds (up to 1.0 body length/sec) to understand how the ribbon-fin generates propulsion. These wave properties were analyzed to (1) determine whether regional specialization occurs along the ribbon-fin, and (2) to reveal how the undulatory waves are used to control swimming speed. Wave properties were also compared between swimming with sole use of the ribbon-fin, and swimming with simultaneous use of the ribbon and pectoral fins. Statistical analysis of ribbon-fin kinematics revealed no differences in kinematic patterns along the ribbon-fin, and that forward propulsive speed in Amia is controlled by the frequency of the wave in the ribbon-fin, irrespective of the contribution of the pectoral fin. This study is the first kinematic analysis of the ribbon-fin in a basal fish and the model species for Amiiform locomotion, providing a basis for understanding ribbon-fin locomotion among a broad range of teleosts.

Andrew Legault, Jörn Theuerkauf, Vivien Chartendrault, Sophie Rouys, Maurice Saoumoé, Ludovic Verfaille, Frédéric Desmoulins, Nicolas Barré, Roman Gula, Using ecological niche models to infer the distribution and population size of parakeets in New Caledonia, Biological Conservation, Volume 167, November 2013, Pages 149-160, ISSN 0006-3207, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2013.07.041.
Knowing the distribution and abundance of species is critical for conservation, yet field surveys are often limited in their spatial extent. In this study, we use ecological niche models to infer the current and future distribution of New Caledonian Parakeets (Cyanoramphus saisseti), Horned Parakeets (Eunymphicus cornutus), and Ouvéa Parakeets (Eunymphicus uvaeensis) in New Caledonia. In addition, we present a new method of assessing the population size of each species based on the relationship between local abundance and modelled habitat suitability. According to our estimates, there are 5708 (5048–6174) New Caledonian Parakeets on the main island of New Caledonia, distributed over an area of 2783 km2, of which 1939 km2 is forested. We estimate there to be 8690 (7934–9445) Horned Parakeets, and their distribution extends over 3482 km2, including 2162 km2 of forest. In comparison, the Ouvéa Parakeet has a very restricted range of 34 km2 (most of which is forested), and a population estimated at 1730 (963–3203) individuals. Projections involving simulated climate change suggest that populations of New Caledonian Parakeets and Horned Parakeets may recede into areas at higher altitudes in the future, primarily along the central mountain chain of the mainland. It is difficult to predict how the Ouvéa Parakeet will respond to the climatic changes forecast for Ouvéa, as the species is expected to face climatic conditions in the future that are different from any of those currently experienced on the island. Our research demonstrates that the current reserve system in New Caledonia is unlikely to provide sufficient protection for parakeets. Hence, we believe that existing Important Bird Areas (IBAs) should be evaluated for their current and future potential as reserves.

Stephen D. Simpson, Julius J.B. Piercy, Jeremy King, Edward A. Codling, Modelling larval dispersal and behaviour of coral reef fishes, Ecological Complexity, Available online 4 September 2013, ISSN 1476-945X, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecocom.2013.08.001.
Coral reef fish spend their first few weeks developing in the open ocean, where eggs and larvae appear merciless to tides and currents, before attempting to leave the pelagic zone and settle on a suitable reef. This pelagic dispersal phase is the process that determines population connectivity and allows replenishment of harvested populations across multiple coral reef habitats. Until recently this pelagic larval dispersal phase has been poorly understood and has often been referred to as the ‘black-box’ in the life-history of coral reef fishes. In this perspective article we highlight three areas where mathematical and computational approaches have been used to aid our understanding of this important ecological process. We discuss models that provide insights into the evolution of the pelagic larval phase in coral reef fish, an unresolved question which lends itself well to a modelling approach due to the difficulty in obtaining empirical data on this life history strategy. We describe how studies of fish hearing and physical sound propagation models can be used to predict the detection distance of reefs for settling larval fish, and the potential impact of anthropogenic noise. We explain how random walk models can be used to explore individual- and group-level behaviour in larval fish during the dispersal and settlement stage of their life-history. Finally, we discuss the mutual benefits that mathematical and computational approaches have brought to and gained from the field of larval behaviour and dispersal of reef fishes.

Oren Sonin, Pierre Salameh, Dor Edelist and Daniel Golani (2013). First record of the Red Sea goatfish, Parupeneus forsskali (Perciformes: Mullidae) from the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Marine Biodiversity Records, 6, e105 doi:10.1017/S1755267213000791.
The Red Sea goatfish, Parupeneus forsskali, was collected for the first time off the Mediterranean coast of Israel. This finding, in addition to another specimen reported recently from Lebanon and numerous observations by underwater divers, strongly suggests that this species has established a population in the eastern Mediterranean.

N. V. Malygina, K. V. Maklakov, F. V. Kryazhimskiy Population dynamics of wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.) on the Taimyr Peninsula: A simulation model
Russian Journal of Ecology September 2013, Volume 44, Issue 5, pp 415-421

A simulation model, based on original and published data, has been developed to determine the period and amplitude of natural population cycles of wild reindeer on the Taimyr Peninsula and reveal the role of hunting in these cycles. The results of simulations show that hunting in the late 20th century has smoothed out the cycles. Considering natural factors of population regulation, uncontrolled elimination of part of the population by hunting should maintain the average long-term abundance at a level lower than potentially possible under natural dynamics, leading to negative ecological and economic consequences.

T. A. Dupal, V. M. Chernyshov Small mammals in the diets of the Long-eared Owl (Asio otus) and Short-eared Owl (A. flammeus) in the south of Western Siberia
Russian Journal of Ecology September 2013, Volume 44, Issue 5, pp 397-401

Diets of the Long-eared and Short-eared Owls, closely related species with overlapping ranges, have been studied in the south of Western Siberia (the Baraba Lowland) by analyzing bone remains in pellets. The results show that both species in the south of the Baraba Lowland employ similar strategies of food resource use, which, however, differ in some aspects. In the Short-eared Owl, the hunting range is apparently more restricted. During the nesting period, these birds occupy relatively moist habitats along riverbanks and protect their hunting grounds. The Long-eared Owl nests in mainly mesic habitats, in forest outliers, and can supplement its diet with shrews (Sorex) and steppe rodent species. The diets of both species largely consist of murine rodent species that are dominant or subdominant in the small mammal community of the Baraba forest-steppe. Seasonal and interannual variations in the food spectra of both species have been revealed.

N. G. Evdokimov
Postnatal growth and development of the northern mole vole in natural populations in the northwestern part of its range
Russian Journal of Ecology September 2013, Volume 44, Issue 5, pp 387-396

Long-term studies (1975–1999) and large amounts of field data (collections and observations on marked animals) have been used to analyze the growth and development of the northern mole vole (Ellobius talpinus Pall., 1770). Data are presented on the postnatal development and life spans of particular age groups of this species and on the dynamics of growth and life spans in the resident and migrant parts of the population. It is shown that the population is divided into slowly growing and rapidly growing groups, which is related to population dynamics. The timing of sexual maturation of the northern mole vole depending on the time of birth is clarified. It is shown that stable reproduction of this underground species is accounted for by the presence of seasonal generations.

A. V. Argunov, V. M. Safronov
Demographic structure of Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus Pall.) population in central Yakutia
Russian Journal of Ecology September 2013, Volume 44, Issue 5, pp 402-407

The dynamics of the sex and age structure of Siberian roe deer in central Yakutia has been analyzed over the period from 1998 to 2011. In the snowy winter of 2004, mass migration and high mortality of the animals were recorded. The following shift of the adult sex ratio in favor of females and increase in the proportion of calves provided for rapid population recovery. Climate warming, accompanied by increase in the amount of snow, has impaired living conditions for Siberian roe deer. Realization of the species reproductive potential is restrained by natural and anthropogenic elimination factors, and prospects for future population growth are poor.

The following is the established format for referencing this article:
Lotz, A., and C. R. Allen. 2013. Social-ecological predictors of global invasions and extinctions. Ecology and Society 18(3): 15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5751/ES-05550-180315

Most assessments of resilience have been focused on local conditions. Studies focused on the relationship between humanity and environmental degradation are rare, and are rarely comprehensive. We investigated multiple social-ecological factors for 100 countries around the globe in relation to the percentage of invasions and extinctions within each country. These 100 countries contain approximately 87% of the world’s population, produce 43% of the world’s per capita gross domestic product (GDP), and take up 74% of the earth’s total land area. We used an information theoretic approach to determine which models were most supported by our data, utilizing an a priori set of plausible models that included a combination of 15 social-ecological variables, each social-ecological factor by itself, and selected social-ecological factors grouped into three broad classes. These variables were per capita GDP, export-import ratio, tourism, undernourishment, energy efficiency, agricultural intensity, rainfall, water stress, wilderness protection, total biodiversity, life expectancy, adult literacy, pesticide regulation, political stability, and female participation in government. Our results indicate that as total biodiversity and total land area increase, the percentage of endangered birds also increases. As the independent variables (agricultural intensity, rainfall, water stress, and total biodiversity) in the ecological class model increase, the percentage of endangered mammals in a country increases. The percentage of invasive birds and mammals in a country increases as per capita GDP increases. As life expectancy increases, the percentage of invasive and endangered birds and mammals increases. Although our analysis does not determine mechanisms, the patterns observed in this study provide insight into the dynamics of a complex, global, social-ecological system.

Zarin P. Machanda, Ian C. Gilby, Richard W. Wrangham
Male–Female Association Patterns Among Free-ranging Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)
International Journal of Primatology September 2013

Although male–female relationships can offer a number of advantages such as protection or social support, they are poorly studied among primates compared to same-sex relationships. We used 12 yr of data from the Kanyawara chimpanzee community to compare three independent measures of association (party association, 5m association, and grooming) among all adult dyads. Party association exhibited by male–female dyads was of intermediate strength between strong male–male and weak female–female association. Male–female dyads were less likely to be within 5m of one another and to groom as male–male dyads, but equally likely to be within 5m and more likely to groom as female–female dyads. Variation in male–female association strength was not related to male rank but was affected by female ranging patterns and female reproductive states. Females with core areas in the center of the home range were more likely to be in parties with males but did not show higher spatial proximity or grooming indices compared to females ranging in the periphery. Party association and 5m indices were higher for dyads of males and estrous females compared to those with anestrous females. These results indicate that male–female dyads are likely to associate with one another more often than female–female dyads because of overlapping ranging patterns and short-term changes in female reproductive state. We conclude that male and female chimpanzees do not exhibit proximity and grooming patterns indicative of strong affiliative bonds. This study also highlights the importance of using multiple independent measures of bond strength in studies of primate social dynamics.

Jacquet, F., Nicolas, V., Colyn, M., Kadjo B., Hutterer R., Decher J., Akpatou B., Cruaud C. & Denys, C. (2013). Forest refugia and riverine barriers promote diversification in the West African pygmy shrew (Crocidura obscurior complex, Soricomorpha). —Zoologica Scripta, 00, 000–000.
The Crocidura obscurior or West African pygmy shrew complex is endemic to West African forests from south-eastern Guinea, eastern Liberia, southern Côte d’Ivoire and south-western Ghana. We explore the genetic and morphometric diversity of 239 individuals of the C. obscurior complex from 17 localities across its geographical range. Using genetic data from three mitochondrial (16S, cytochrome b and COI) and four nuclear markers (BRCA1, STAT5A, HDAC2 and RIOK3) and skull geometric morphometrics, we show that this complex is composed of two cryptic and sympatric species, C. obscurior and C. eburnea. We then test several hypotheses to infer their evolutionary history. The observed phylogeographical pattern based on cytochrome b and COI sequences fits the forest refuge theory: during arid phases of the Plio-Pleistocene, around 3.5, 2.1, 1 and 0.5 Mya, a small number of populations survived in isolated forest patches and diverged allopatrically. During wetter climatic periods, forests expanded, leading to secondary contacts between previously isolated populations. Our results also suggest the possible contribution of episodes of isolation in subrefuges. Historical variation of the West African hydrographic network could also have contributed to the observed patterns of genetic differentiation. Rivers such as the Volta and Sassandra may act as past and/or current barriers to gene flow. Although these two species have sympatric distributions, their phylogeographical histories are somewhat dissimilar due to small differences in their dispersal abilities and ecological requirements.

Zootaxa 3709 (4): 301–329 (6 Sept. 2013)
Four new species of coral gobies (Teleostei: Gobiidae: Gobiodon), with comments on their relationships within the genus
JUERGEN HERLER, SERGEY V. BOGORODSKY & TOSHIYUKI SUZUKI

Four new species of the coral-associated gobiid genus Gobiodon were discovered in the Red Sea. Although several of these species are common not only in the Red Sea but also in the Indian and western Pacific Ocean, they have not been described before. Detailed descriptions of the four species are based on morphological and molecular genetic (mitochondrial 12s and 16s rRNA) investigations. The new species, like most species of the genus, lack scales and have speciesspecific life colouration. Gobiodon bilineatus sp. nov. is the closest relative to G. quinquestrigatus (Valenciennes) and of G. sp. D (Munday et al.), and has five distinct, blue lines on the head as juveniles and subadults, which disappear in adults, and which are often uniformly orange-red with two distinct, vertical blue lines through each eye. Gobiodon irregularis sp. nov. has been confused with the former new species in the past, and is closely related to G. oculolineatus Wu, but is unmistakable in live colouration. Juveniles are characterised by a transparent body, red bars on the head with bluish to greyish interspaces, and irregular red lines and dots on the nape and dorsally on the body. Adults are usually uniformly brown or green-brown, with only remnants of the bars through the eye and below the orbit. Gobiodon ater sp. nov. is a small, entirely black species and can be easily confused with other black species, although it is genetically clearly distinct from G. ceramensis Bleeker and its black relatives. Gobiodon fuscoruber sp. nov. is likely to be the closest relative of G. ater sp. nov., but is uniformly reddish-brown or brown, has bright median fin margins (at least in the Red Sea), and grows considerably larger than G. ater. It has been genetically determined that G. fuscoruber sp. nov. is identical with an Indian Ocean/western Pacific species that has been called G. unicolor Castelnau by several authors. However, examination of the holotype of G. unicolor, including the original description, revealed that the type species and original description are clearly different from the species frequently called G. unicolor. The holotype resembles G. histrio (Valenciennes) and the name G. unicolor must therefore be considered a junior synonym of G. histrio. As a consequence, a new name for this species is provided.

K. Cuddington, W. J. S. Currie, M. A. Koops
Could an Asian carp population establish in the Great Lakes from a small introduction?
Biological Invasions September 2013

Bighead (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) have established populations in the Mississippi, Illinois, Missouri and Maumee rivers, and because of the hydrological connections, there is now a risk that these species may establish in the Great Lake basins. It has been suggested this risk is minimal because of the small number of fish that breach containment measures, and possible mating-finding difficulties as a consequence. Using literature data, we parameterize a stage- and river-structured population model and examine the probability of a small number of fish establishing a population in one of the Great Lakes. We find that for sexual maturity earlier than age 5, there can be a significant risk of establishment with a very small number of fish (<20) in a lake basin with 10 or fewer spawning rivers. If all fish locate spawning rivers, mating is quite probable for very few spawning rivers. The subdivision of a few spawning adults across a large number rivers does reduce the probability of successful mating, but once a threshold number of fish is reached (dependent on the number of spawning rivers and the probability of fish locating a river), then mating success is very likely. Environmental stochasticity that reduces spawning success and juvenile survival predictably reduces establishment probability, but if spawning rivers have environmental conditions that fluctuate out of phase, this impact is much reduced. As expected, the most hazardous containment breach scenario is if barriers are continually leaky, and a small number of fish are introduced into the lake basin each year. In contrast, a single introduction represents a lower risk of establishment. Overall, the model suggests that establishment is quite likely (>75 % probability) for a large number of scenarios involving a small number of founding individuals (

Ortega-S, J. A., Ibarra-Flores, F. A., Melgoza, A., Gonzalez-Valenzuela, E. A., Martin-Rivera, M. H., Ávila-Curiel, J. M., Ayala-Alvares, F., Pinedo, C. and Rivero, O. (2013), Exotic grasses and wildlife in northern Mexico. Wildlife Society Bulletin. doi: 10.1002/wsb.325
Seeding exotic grasses remains a common practice to increase forage production for cattle in northern Mexico. Even while interest in wildlife conservation and management has been increasing since the late 1990s because of the economic value of wildlife for sport hunting, cattle production still represents an important part of the ranch income. Our objective was to review the available information on exotic grasses and its effect on native rangelands and wildlife. To obtain the information included in this article, we reviewed the published information and personal information and observations. Ranchers need to balance and make commitments to optimize cattle and wildlife economic output. In general, the negative perception of biologists, ranchers, and the general public toward exotic grasses is less pronounced than in the United States even when the ecological benefits of maintaining healthy native rangelands is well-understood. Differences in primary productivity and domestic animal production between exotic and native grasses are well-documented; however, information on impacts of exotic grasses on wildlife is extremely limited. The preservation of native rangelands is important; however, exotic grasses will continue to be seeded in northern Mexico as long as cattle production remains an important economic activity. Exotic grasses in many cases will be impossible to eradicate; therefore, management will be necessary to ensure optimization of habitat for livestock and wildlife species. In this context many research questions need to be answered to optimize domestic livestock production and maintain healthy wildlife populations. Governments, non-governmental organizations, and other entities interested in conservation should combine efforts and develop incentive programs for ranchers to preserve native rangelands in Mexico and to avoid seeding exotic grasses.

Rypel, A. L. (2013), Do invasive freshwater fish species grow better when they are invasive?. Oikos. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2013.00530.x
A frequent assumption in invasion ecology is that invasive species have enhanced growth rates in their invasive ranges. However, invasions frequently occur in sub-tropical and tropical environments where growth could be higher simply due to climatic conditions rather than novel habitat. In this study, a meta-analysis of growth rates (length-at-age data) was completed for six invasive freshwater fish species: common carp Cyprinus carpio, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, brown trout Salmo trutta, brown bullhead Ictalurus nebulosus, flathead catfish Pylodictis olivaris and northern snakehead Channa argus. Significant effects of climate on growth were observed for all species except common carp, and following normalization of growth for climate effects, a range of growth responses between native and invasive populations were revealed. Two species (brown trout, flathead catfish) showed significantly increased growth rates in invasive compared to native ranges, but two species (common carp, largemouth bass) showed significantly faster growth in native ranges, and two other species (northern snakehead, brown bullhead) showed no difference in growth rates. No species showed both significantly enhanced growth rates and initial sizes in invasive compared to native ranges. Using the comparative method, countergradient growth variations were apparent for all species within their native ranges and for all but one species in invasive ranges. Invasive populations of freshwater fish do not always grow faster when invasive and future studies need to consider growth covariates (e.g. climate and countergradient growth) prior to comparing life-history differences between invasive and native populations.

Irvin, E., Duren, K. R., Buler, J. J., Jones, W., Gonzon, A. T. and Williams, C. K. (2013), A multi-scale occupancy model for the grasshopper sparrow in the Mid-Atlantic. The Journal of Wildlife Management. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.609
Identifying features of breeding habitat that influence occupancy and modeling the distribution of grassland birds is needed to direct conservation efforts to reduce population declines associated with habitat loss and fragmentation. Many recent studies on grassland bird habitat use incorporate both local and landscape attributes. However, few studies have determined the appropriate spatial scales at which to measure these relationships. We conducted roadside point counts within Delaware, USA, to determine the presence of grasshopper sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum). We quantified both land cover composition and configuration at local and landscape scales at our survey sites using data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Change Analysis Program. We determined the spatial scales at which grasshopper sparrow presence was most strongly related to landscape metrics and modeled grasshopper sparrow habitat occupancy at multiple scales, while accounting for variation in detection. At the site scale, occupancy was negatively related to forest and shrub composition. At the landscape scale, grasshopper sparrow occupancy was positively related to the amount of grasslands and pastures, and negatively related to mean inter-patch distance of grasslands and amount of low-intensity development. Our model had good predictive accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve = 0.717). We present our predictive model applied to the Delmarva Peninsula, USA.

Hill, H. M., Campbell, C., Dalton, L. and Osborn, S. (2013), The first year of behavioral development and maternal care of beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) calves in human care. Zoo Biol.. doi: 10.1002/zoo.21093
The current study provides additional information for the behavioral development and maternal care of belugas or white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in the care of humans. The behaviors and mother–calf interactions of two female beluga calves were recorded from birth to 12 months as part of a longitudinal study of beluga behavioral development. As expected, the primary calf activity for both calves involved swimming with their mothers. The calves initiated the majority of the separations from and reunions with their mothers and exhibited early bouts of independence. Both mothers bonded with their calves and displayed similar maternal care behaviors but exhibited different behavioral patterns. Despite differences in social groupings, housing, and physical health, the two female belugas followed the behavioral development of beluga calves observed previously.

Wolf, T. M., Sreevatsan, S., Travis, D., Mugisha, L. and Singer, R. S. (2013), The risk of tuberculosis transmission to free-ranging great apes. Am. J. Primatol.. doi: 10.1002/ajp.22197
Pathogen exchange between humans and primates has been facilitated by anthropogenic disturbances, such as changing land use patterns, habitat destruction, and poaching, which decrease population sizes and increase levels of primate–human interaction. As a result, human and domestic animal diseases have become a recognized threat to endangered primate populations. Tuberculosis is a major global human and animal health concern, especially in equatorial Africa where many of the remaining free-living great ape populations exist in proximity with exposed and/or infected human populations and their domestic animals. Increased anthropogenic pressure creates an opportunity for the anthropozoonotic spread of this disease. This review examines current evidence of the risk of tuberculosis transmission to great apes, the benefits and limitations of current detection methods, the impact of current great ape conservation and management strategies on this risk, and the need for an ecosystem health-based approach to mitigating the risks of tuberculosis transmission to great apes.

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