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Mojmír Vašek, Lucie Všetičková, Kevin Roche, Pavel Jurajda, Diet of two invading gobiid species (Proterorhinus semilunaris and Neogobius melanostomus) during the breeding and hatching season: no field evidence of extensive predation on fish eggs and fry, Limnologica – Ecology and Management of Inland Waters, Available online 16 December 2013, ISSN 0075-9511, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.limno.2013.11.003.
One of the potential impacts of invasive gobies on native fish fauna is predation on eggs and fry. Therefore, the diet composition of two invading gobiid species, the tubenose goby Proterorhinus semilunaris and round goby Neogobius melanostomus, was examined in the Dyje river system (Danube basin, Central Europe) during the 2011 reproductive season to ascertain the extent of gobiid predation on heterospecific and conspecific eggs and juveniles. Consumption of fish eggs and juveniles by invading gobies was very low. The diets of both species consisted largely of benthic macroinvertebrates, and particularly insect larvae. These results indicate that invading gobies in the Dyje river system are likely to impact native fish fauna more through competitive effects than through direct predation on eggs and juveniles.

Moore, D. L. and Vigilant, L. (2013), A population estimate of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Ugalla region using standard and spatially explicit genetic capture–recapture methods. Am. J. Primatol.. doi: 10.1002/ajp.22237
Population parameters such as size, density, and distribution of a species across a landscape are important metrics that inform conservation science and are key to management strategies. In this study, we used genetic capture–recapture methods to estimate the population size and density of the little-studied chimpanzees in the Ugalla region of western Tanzania. From 237 fecal samples collected non-invasively over a 10-month period, we identified a minimum of 113 individuals. Based on the two-innate rate method (TIRM) modeled in the software capwire, we obtained a maximum-likelihood estimate of 322 (CI 227–373) individuals over the 624 km2 area surveyed. Using a spatially explicit capture–recapture (SECR) method, we estimated a population density of 0.25 (CI 0.16–0.38) individuals/km2. Observations of nests and search effort data revealed areas of more intense usage. The findings of this study are an important step in the characterization of the Ugalla chimpanzees, and substantially improve our understanding of the number of chimpanzees that occupy this savanna-woodland region at the easternmost extent of the geographic range of this endangered subspecies.

Owen, M. A., Hall, S., Bryant, L. and Swaisgood, R. R. (2013), The influence of ambient noise on maternal behavior in a Bornean sun bear (Helarctos malayanus euryspilus). Zoo Biol.. doi: 10.1002/zoo.21105
Anthropogenic noise has become a pervasive feature of both marine and terrestrial habitats worldwide. While a comprehensive understanding of the biologically significant impacts of noise on wildlife is lacking, concerns regarding its influence persist. Noise is also a common feature in the zoological setting, and much can be learned regarding the species-typical response to ambient noise by studying animals in captivity. Here we correlate behavioral and vocal patterns in a Bornean sun bear (Helarctos malayanus euryspilus) mother and cub with ambient noise levels during the 6-month post-partum period. We hypothesized that loud ambient noise would be correlated with changes in behavior, and predicted that noise would be negatively correlated with maternal care behavior, potentially masking cub vocalizations or providing a distraction to the mother. Contrary to expectation, we found that the mother spent significantly more time attending to her cub (P = 0.03) on loud days. We also found that she tended to spend less time feeding (P = 0.08); however her time spent resting was not affected. The cub was approximately twice as vocal on loud days, although these results were not statistically significant (humming: P = 0.10; squawks/cries: P = 0.14). Taken together, these results suggest that the behavioral response to ambient noise may have potential energetic costs, and as a result efforts should be made to reduce ambient noise exposure during the post-partum period.

King, C. E. and Bračko, A. (2013), Nineteen years of management for Phoenicopteriformes in European Association of Zoos and Aquaria institutions: the Fabulous Flamingo Surveys and strategies to increase reproduction in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook. doi: 10.1111/izy.12041
Flamingos are estimated to be present in at least two-thirds of European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA) institutions. In total, 8837 flamingos in 168 institutions, including 164 EAZA zoos and four Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust centres were reported as at 1 January 2010. Around 93% (8214) of the flamingos reported were the three Phoenicopterus spp: Greater flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus, Caribbean flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber and Chilean flamingo Phoenicopterus chilensis. These three species are included in the EAZA Ciconiiformes and Phoenicopteriformes Regional Collection Plan (RCP), along with the Lesser flamingo Phoeniconaias minor. All four species are managed in the lowest RCP category, ‘Monitor by TAG’, as efforts currently focus on broad-scale issues at the zoo/group level. Answers to a survey demonstrated that EAZA zoos would like to hold many more flamingos than are currently available. The Taxon Advisory Group has adopted 11 strategies to improve the conditions and breeding of flamingos in captivity. For example, to improve breeding results zoos are encouraged to have only a single flamingo species in an enclosure, to balance sex ratios in groups and to keep full-flighted flamingos. Health problems as well as predator and trauma mortality are also discussed in this paper. The Fabulous Flamingo Survey is being repeated at 5 year intervals in order to monitor progress and adjust strategies.

Ganey, J. L., White, G. C., Ward, J. P., Kyle, S. C., Apprill, D. L., Rawlinson, T. A. and Jonnes, R. S. (2013), Demography of Mexican spotted owls in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico. The Journal of Wildlife Management. doi: 10.1002/jwmg.642
nformation on population dynamics is key to gauging the status of threatened or endangered species. We monitored demography of a population of threatened Mexican spotted owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in the Sacramento Mountains, New Mexico from 2003 to 2011. We estimated reproductive output for territorial pairs of owls; used mark-recapture methodology and Pradel’s reparameterized Jolly-Seber models to estimate annual apparent survival rates, recapture rates, recruitment rates, and annual rate of population change (λRJS) for 2005–2009; and used estimates of λRJS to assess short-term population viability. Reproductive output was highly variable for 2004–2011, whereas annual apparent survival and recapture rates were less variable among years. Annual rates of population change exceeded 1.0 for both sexes from 2005 to 2009, and empirical observations of numbers of territorial owls supported the model-based trend estimate. Abundance of territorial owls was strongly related to reproduction within the study area, suggesting that population change was driven largely by internal processes. Population viability analyses suggested that population growth was likely to continue in the short term if current conditions persist. The positive growth rates observed in our study populations are encouraging, and may indicate that current recommendations for recovering this owl are succeeding. However, our estimates of λRJS covered a very short time period, given both the potential lifespan of Mexican spotted owls and the extent of temporal variability in weather typical of the southwestern United States. Longer studies of owl demography than we present will be required to understand long-term population trends, and such studies should extend across the range of the subspecies

Integrative taxonomy and preliminary assessment of species limits in the Liolaemus walkeri complex (Squamata, Liolaemidae) with descriptions of three new species from Peru
Cesar Aguilar, Perry Wood, Juan Carlos Cusi, Alfredo Guzman, Frank Huari, Mikael Lundberg, Emma Mortensen, César Ramirez, Daniel Robles, Juana Suarez, Andres Ticona, Victor Vargas, Pablo J. Venegas, Jack Sites
ZooKeys 364 (2013): 47-91 doi: 10.3897/zookeys.364.6109

Species delimitation studies based on integrative taxonomic approaches have received considerable attention in the last few years, and have provided the strongest hypotheses of species boundaries. We used three lines of evidence (molecular, morphological, and niche envelopes) to test for species boundaries in Peruvian populations of the Liolaemus walkeri complex. Our results show that different lines of evidence and analyses are congruent in different combinations, for unambiguous delimitation of three lineages that were “hidden” within known species, and now deserve species status. Our phylogenetic analysis shows that L. walkeri, L. tacnae and the three new species are strongly separated from other species assigned to the alticolor-bibronii group. Few conventional morphological characters distinguish the new species from closely related taxa and this highlights the need to integrate other sources of data to erect strong hypothesis of species limits. A taxonomic key for known Peruvian species of the subgenus Lioalemus is provided.

Almeida, D. and Grossman, G. D. (2013), Regulated small rivers as ‘nursery’ areas for invasive largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in Iberian waters. Aquatic Conserv: Mar. Freshw. Ecosyst.. doi: 10.1002/aqc.2425
Few studies have assessed the ecological role of regulated small rivers in the environmental biology of invasive largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in Iberian waters.Size structure, diet, physical condition, and developmental stress of largemouth bass populations were compared between two contrasting habitats in the Iberian Peninsula, the Encinarejo Reservoir and the small River Jándula below the dam (Guadalquivir River Basin, southern Spain).Size structure differed between river and reservoir populations of small (

Zootaxa 3750 (3): 201–215 (19 Dec. 2013)
On the identities of Barbus mussullah Sykes and Cyprinus curmuca Hamilton with notes on the status of Gobio canarensis Jerdon (Teleostei: Cyprinidae)

The identity and generic placement of Barbus mussullah Sykes, the type species of Hypselobarbus Bleeker, have for long been unclear, variously having been considered a synonym of Cyprinus curmuca Hamilton or a species of Tor Gray or Gonoproktopterus Bleeker. Here, through a re-examination of the original descriptions and the examination of specimens from western peninsular India, we redescribe H. mussullah and show that Hypselobarbus is a valid genus, of which Gonoproktopertus is a junior synonym. Hypselobarbus mussullah is distinguished from all other species of Hypselobarbus by possessing both rostral and maxillary barbels; having the last simple dorsal-fin ray weak and smooth; the lateral line complete, with 41 +1 pored scales; 9/1/4 scales in transverse line between origins of dorsal and pelvic fins; and 5½ scales between lateral line and anal-fin origin. Species of Hypselobarbus are distinguished from other genera of Cyprinidae by possessing long, branched gill rakers and the anal fin distally rounded in adults. Hypselobarbus canarensis was found to be a valid species and H. kurali is considered its synonym. Hypselobarbus canarensis can be distinguished from all congeners by possessing both rostral and maxillary barbels; having the last simple dorsal-fin ray weak and smooth; the lateral line complete, with 40–42+1 pored scales; ½7–½8/1/3½ scales in transverse line from dorsal-fin origin to pelvic-fin origin; 4½ scales between lateral line and anal-fin origin. Hypselobarbus kolus is considered a synonym of H. curmuca, which is redescribed: it is distinguished from all congeners by possessing maxillary barbels only; the last simple dorsalfin ray weak and smooth; 41–43+1 lateral-line scales; 9–10/1/4½–5 scales in transverse line between origins of dorsal and
pelvic fins; and 5½–6 scales between lateral line and anal-fin origin.

Zootaxa 3750 (3): 216–222 (19 Dec. 2013)
Acanthoplesiops cappuccino, a new species of acanthoclinine fish from the Red Sea (Teleostei: Plesiopidae)

Acanthoplesiops cappuccino is described from the 16.4 mm SL holotype collected from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, Red Sea.
The following combination of characters distinguishes it from congeners: dorsal-fin rays XVIII,4; anal-fin rays VII,4; pectoral-fin rays 18; caudal fin not connected to last rays of dorsal and anal fins by membrane; and caudal peduncle with a pale yellowish brown bar, which extends broadly on to caudal fin. An underwater photo of the anaesthetised holotype is provided, as well as one of the freshly dead holotype and only known specimen of the similar species A. naka. Tables summarizing diagnostic characters of the six known species of Acanthoplesiops are included.

Zootaxa 3750 (4): 301–320 (20 Dec. 2013)
Morphological and acoustic characterization of Proceratophrys goyana (Lissamphibia: Anura: Odontophrynidae), with the description of a sympatric and related new species

Proceratophrys goyana was until recently the only species of the genus described from central Brazil. In this paper we characterize the adult morphology and advertisement call of this species, based on data collected at its type-locality (Chapada dos Veadeiros, Goiás, Brazil). These new data allowed us to recognize a new species of Proceratophrys, sympatric to P. goyana, which is described herein. Proceratophrys goyana is mainly characterized by the male SVL = 38.8–46.5 mm; a welldeveloped and continuous pair of dorsal sagittal ridges; upper eyelids triangular; developed frontoparietal crests, delimiting a shallow depression between them; overall color pattern browned, with the symmetrical dorsal ridges bordered laterally by dark brown undulations. Proceratophrys rotundipalpebra sp. nov. is characterized by the male SVL = 30.4–39.3 mm; the pair of symmetrical dorsal ridges well-developed anteriorly and somewhat interrupted in the sacral region; upper eyelids short and rounded; frontoparietal crests not well-developed; overall color pattern stained by 3–4 tonalities of gray, without a clear
background color. The advertisement calls of both species are emitted in a multi-note pattern, each note pulsed, the first and last notes differing from each other and from those amidst the call in temporal features. The description of this new species is another example of the underestimated diversity of Proceratophrys in the Cerrado of central Brazil.

Zootaxa 3750 (4): 321–347 (20 Dec. 2013)
Three new species of Proceratophrys Miranda-Ribeiro 1920 from Brazilian Cerrado (Anura, Odontophrynidae)

Based on the analyses of specimens collected at several areas in the Cerrado domain from Central Brazil and others housed in scientific collections and on specimens collected at the type-locality, herein we describe three new species belonging to the P. cristiceps group: Proceratophrys bagnoi sp. nov., from UHE Serra da Mesa power plant (13°49’47.5”S, 48°19’17”W; 570 m a.s.l.; WGS84 datum), Municipality of Minaçu, State of Goiás; Proceratophrys branti sp. nov., from Jalapão, Municipality of Mateiros (05o15’25”S, 48o12’00”W; 109 m a.s.l.; WGS84 datum), State of Tocantins; and Proceratophrys dibernardoi sp. nov., Municipality of Mineiros (17o33’52”S, 52o33’20”W; 803 m a.s.l.; WGS84 datum), State of Goiás. The diversity of Proceratophrys in Brazilian Cerrado is still underscored and several species will be described in the following years.

María José Corriale, Emilio A. Herrera
Patterns of habitat use and selection by the capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris): a landscape-scale analysis
Ecological Research December 2013

Habitat selection analysis provides useful information on how animals become distributed in response to spatial heterogeneity. Here, we analyze the habitat use and selection of different water bodies (marsh, swamps and round shallow lakes) by capybaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and their relation to environmental variables during contrasting climate-hydrological seasons in the Esteros del Iberá (Corrientes, Argentina). We evaluated the intensity of use by capybaras through the total number of individuals (abundance) in each water body, the number and mean size of social groups, and the physical and vegetation characteristics of the environment. The capybaras used marsh and swamps according to availability in both seasons, while they used rounded shallow lakes less than their available would suggest in summer. The use intensity of different rounded shallow lakes estimated based on group size did not show significant differences. In contrast, significant differences were observed when evaluated by the number of individuals in each rounded shallow lake. Different intensity of use was closely associated with environmental and vegetation characteristics. The results show that habitat suitability for capybaras is associated with vegetation cover and “embalsados” in the low-lying area rather than with the morphometry of the rounded shallow lakes. The pattern of habitat selection may depend on forage quality, water availability for thermoregulation and mating, and presence of shelter and resting sites. On the other hand, the present study shows how the size, shape and the abundance of different types of water bodies affect population abundance and density.

A. L. Adams, M. R. Recio, B. C. Robertson, K. J. M. Dickinson, Y. van Heezik
Understanding home range behaviour and resource selection of invasive common brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in urban environments
Biological Invasions December 2013

Because invasive species are often opportunistic and behaviourally flexible, they tend to be successful in urban landscapes, where they may use space differently than in their more traditional habitats. Consequently, control strategies developed for invasive pest species in non-urban areas may not succeed in an urban context. Using GPS tracking, we examined habitat use by an invasive pest, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) in residential New Zealand habitats; these habitats comprise a large proportion of the urban landscape and are currently not targeted for pest control. We predicted that home ranges of possums in residential areas would be larger than those in non-urban habitats due to lower densities of their primary food resource, plant material; that possums would prefer forest fragment habitat; and that they would avoid roads due to the mortality risk. Home range sizes estimated using mechanistic Brownian bridges and 100 % minimum convex polygons were smaller or similar in size to those recorded in rural and forest habitats. Resource utilization functions and the regression of utilization distribution probabilities against environmental variables showed that possums selected forest fragments primarily, followed by residential habitat characterised by large gardens with a degree of vegetative structural complexity. Roads were not avoided. Control operations should expand their scope to include residential areas containing mature, diverse vegetation rather than only focussing on forest fragments, a strategy that ignores biodiversity values in residential habitats, and is likely to be unsuccessful due to reinvasion potential from neighbouring residential areas.

M. Veeraselvam, R. Sridhar, M. G. Jayathangaraj, and P. Perumal, “Behavioural Study of Captive Sloth Bears Using Environmental Enrichment Tools,” International Journal of Zoology, vol. 2013, Article ID 526905, 6 pages, 2013. doi:10.1155/2013/526905
Effects of environmental enrichment on behavioural changes were studied in five captive sloth bears kept in confined enclosure at Zoological Park, Chennai, India. Behavioural categories like active, passive, and abnormal behaviours were taken for the study. The activity budget was recorded as a single animal scan. The detailed baseline data of 150 hours, over a period of 30 days, were collected. At baseline, bears exhibited passive and more abnormal behaviours. Similarly, after application of the environmental tools like honey-log, underground food pipes, and wobbling box in the enclosure, the data were collected for 150 hours (30 days). Increased active behaviours and decreased abnormal behaviours were observed and showed highly significant changes in the abnormal behaviour as a whole when compared to the baseline level. During the postenrichment period, the data that were collected for 150 hours (30 days) showed no significant differences statistically between the behavioural categories. But certain level of difference was evident from the percentage of abnormal behaviours exhibited by individual bears. Among the enrichment devices, honey-log was the most preferred enrichment tool as revealed by the percentage of time spent by individual animal. The results show that application of enrichment tool continuously may bring long term effect in stereotypic behaviour.

Anaïs Maugard, Edward A. Wasserman, Leyre Castro, Joël Fagot
Effects of training condition on the contribution of specific items to relational processing in baboons (Papio papio)
Animal Cognition December 2013

Relational processing involves learning about the relationship between or among stimuli, transcending the individual stimuli, so that abstract knowledge generalizable to novel situations is acquired. Relational processing has been studied in animals as well as in humans, but little attention has been paid to the contribution of specific items to relational thinking or to the factors that may affect that contribution. This study assessed the intertwined effects of item and relational processing in nonhuman primates. Using a procedure that entailed both expanding and contracting sets of pictorial items, we trained 13 baboons on a two-alternative forced-choice task, in which they had to distinguish horizontal from vertical relational patterns. In Experiment 1, monkeys engaged in item-based processing with a small training set size, and they progressively engaged in relation-based processing as training set size was increased. However, in Experiment 2, overtraining with a small stimulus set promoted the processing of item-based information. These findings underscore similarities in how humans and nonhuman primates process higher-order stimulus relations.

Thibaud Gruber
Wild-Born Orangutans (Pongo abelii) Engage in Triadic Interactions During Play
International Journal of Primatology December 2013

It has long been held that triadic interactions, or interactions between individuals that include shared perception and goals concerning an outside entity, require elaborate cognitive processes such as joint attention. With their connection to shared intentionality, triadic interactions have been a key topic of interest for developmental and evolutionary psychologists, notably when making comparisons between humans and other ape species. There is good evidence that chimpanzees and bonobos engage in triadic interactions; however, convincing evidence for orangutans are more limited and so far have been found only in the context of feeding. I engaged 11 wild-born sanctuary orangutans through the medium of a stick, allowing them to decide how to use the object and how to interact with me. The participating orangutans developed idiosyncratic ways of using the stick and engaging with me during the activity, and six of them alternated their gaze between the stick and me. When I interrupted the activity, the participating orangutans displayed more numerous and different behaviors than before the interruption to actively reengage me in the game. Much like human infants, they appeared more interested in the social interaction than in the stick. These findings confirm that triadic interactions occur in nonenculturated orangutans and are consistent with studies of other nonhuman great ape species, which also show triadic interactions, suggesting that joint attention and potentially shared intentionality may have an early origin in our evolutionary history.

María V Parachú Marcó, Alejandro Larriera, Carlos I Piña
Impacts of red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta on survivorship of hatchlings of the broad-snouted caiman Caiman latirostris
Zoological Studies December 2013

Oviparous vertebrate species are often vulnerable to predation by red imported fire ants (RIFAs, Solenopsis invicta) in natural environments. The necrotic action of the venom can cause localized infections, with subsequent effects on survival and growth. Despite the significant impacts of RIFAs in regions where they have been introduced, very little is known about the competitive mechanisms of RIFAs with other species in their native habitat. We tested whether the survival and growth of hatchlings of the broad-snouted caiman Caiman latirostris were affected by different exposure times to RIFAs.We observed that an increased exposure time to RIFAs caused a decrease in C. latirostris survival. However, the subsequent growth of C. latirostris hatchlings was not affected by the time of exposure to the ants.S. invicta can cause negative effects for other species in places where it is native. The mechanisms of S. invicta toxicity to caimans are not known; these data could help model the effects of S. invicta on C. latirostris survival, in turn fostering a better understanding of wild population dynamics.

Rimvydas Juškaitis, Linas Balčiauskas, Vita Šiožinytė
Nest site selection by the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius: is safety more important than food?
Zoological Studies December 2013

Vegetation parameters determining nest site selection by the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius were studied in a typical habitat where dormice are relatively common in Lithuania, the northern periphery of its distributional range.Dormice preferred nest sites with a better-developed understory, particularly with a good cover of hazel shrubs taller than 4 m and plentiful bird cherry trees, a high diversity of woody plant species in the understory and overstory, and better connectivity of the nest tree with its surroundings. They avoided sites with a high number of mature Norway spruce trees in the canopy and a high density of young trees. In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, three vegetation parameters of the number of shrub species, the cover of hazel shrubs, and the number of Norway spruce trees in the canopy determined over 85% of the index of nestbox use by M. avellanarius. The number of shrub species in the surroundings of the nest site had the highest impact of all. Nest sites used by dormice for breeding were distinguished by a better-developed understory, particularly by a significantly higher number of bird cherry trees and a lower number of Norway spruce trees in the canopy, as well as a higher diversity of plants in the understory and overstory.Selection of nest sites by M. avellanarius is a combination of safety from predators and the presence of food. A well-developed inter-connected understory ensures the safety of nest sites from predators, and the diversity of understory and overstory species guarantees continuity of the food supply in the vicinity of nest sites.

Karen Ventura, Maria José J Silva, Lena Geise, Yuri LR Leite, Ulyses FJ Pardiñas, Yatiyo Yonenaga-Yassuda, Guillermo D’Elía
The phylogenetic position of the enigmatic Atlantic forest-endemic spiny mouse Abrawayaomys (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae)
Zoological Studies December 2013

The phylogenetic position of the sigmodontine genus Abrawayaomys, historically assigned to the tribe Thomasomyini or considered a sigmodontine incertae sedis, was assessed on the basis of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences obtained from four individuals from different localities in the Atlantic forest of Brazil. Sequences of Abrawayaomys were analyzed in the context of broad taxonomic matrices by means of maximum-likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses (BA).The phylogenetic position of Abrawayaomys differed depending on the gene analyzed and the analysis performed (interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) ML: sister to Thomasomyini; IRBP BA: sister to Akodontini; cytochrome (Cyt) b ML: sister to Neotomys; and Cyt b BA: sister to Reithrodontini). With the sole exception of the BA based on Cyt b sequences, where the Abrawayaomys-Reithrodon clade had strong support, all sister-group relationships involving Abrawayaomys lacked any significant support.As such, Abrawayaomys constitutes the only representative so far known of one of the main lineages of the sigmodontine radiation, differing from all other Atlantic forest sigmodontine rodents by having a unique combination of morphological character states. Therefore, in formal classifications, it should be regarded as a Sigmodontinae incertae sedis.

Larissa Trompf, Culum Brown, Personality affects learning and trade-offs between private and social information in guppies, Poecilia reticulata, Animal Behaviour, Volume 88, February 2014, Pages 99-106, ISSN 0003-3472, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2013.11.022.
The acquisition of information such as the location and quality of food, mates or shelter is a key survival requirement for animals. Individuals can acquire information through personal experience (private information) or through observing and interacting with others (social information). Environmental spatial and temporal heterogeneity can mean that sometimes social information conflicts with private knowledge. We tested how personality affected the importance placed on public versus private information in wild female guppies when these two information sources came into conflict. We found that boldness and sociality affected decisions to use conflicting social and private information. Bolder females used social information to avoid competition and/or potential patch depletion, whereas highly social individuals preferred the presence of conspecifics over rich foraging opportunities. There was no evidence of a speed–accuracy trade-off in a spatial associative learning task; rather, bold female guppies learned both more quickly and more accurately than shy females. We found no evidence of a behavioural syndrome between boldness and sociality which is consistent with previous studies on this population.

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